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49 Cards in this Set

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A coin has been tossed 10 times and the result has been "heads" each and every time. Which of the following people is demonstrating the "GAmbler's Fallacy"?
(A) the person who bets that the 11th coin toss will result in "heads"
(B) the person who bets that the 11th coin toss will result in "tails"
(C) the person who stops playing, believing that there is no way he can win
(D) all of the above
(B) the pseon who bets that the 11th coin toss will result in "tails"
A visual cliff is most commonly used to study an infant's:
(A) social awareness
(B) depth perception
(C) temperment
(D) attachment style
(B) depth perception
Research on incidental learning showed that:
(A) information that is superficially processed will always be remembered better than information that is deeply processed
(B) there are functionally separate short-term and long-term memory stores
(C) incidental learning can lead to memory performance that is equal to performance following intentional learning, as long as the meaning of the information is processed
(D) intentional learning will always lead to superior memory performance, compared to incidental learning
(C) incidental learning can lead to memory performance tha tis equal to performance following intentional learning, as long as the meaning of the information processed
A toddler holds a drawing up to the telephone, in order to "show" it to his grandmother. This example illustrates:
(A) egocentrism
(B) conservation
(C) accomidation
(D) a concrete operation
(A) egocentrism
Today, contemporary memory researchers:
(A) are no longer conducting research on short-term memory
(B) have turned to the study of memory for meaningful materials
(C) have concluded that there is no relationship between how ell information is learned and the difficulty we'll remembering it
(D) have given up the goal of discovering the basic principles that underlie human memory
(B) have turned to the study of memory for meaningful materials
A friend of yours has been diagnosed as suffering from Korsakoff syndrome, and suffers from substantial damage to the hippocampus. With respect to the patient's memory, it is most likely that:
(A) both explicit and implicit memory performance will be normal
(B) explicit memory will be impaired, but implicit memory will be normal
(C) implicit memory will be impaired, but explicit memory will be normal
(D) both explicit and implicit memory performance will be impaired
(B) explicit memory will be impaired, but implicit memory will be normal
When your friend asks you for an example of how schemas can be _____. You explain that your infant son how has two different shcemas for sucking, one for nipples, and one for thumbs
(A) articulated
(B) differentiated
(C) unrelated
(D) mature
(B) differentiated
Traditional tests of recall and recognition, such as thosed used in college courses:
(A) assess procedural memory
(B) depend on elaborated rehersal performed during study
(C) assess explicit memory
(D) employ repetition priming
(C) assess explicit memory
After noticing how your extremely studious roommate always gets good grades, you start copying his practice of studying every evening. Psychologist would say that your behavior is the result of:
(A) insight learning
(B) latent learning
(C) classical conditioning
(D) observational learning
(D) observational learning
Patty is stunned when she isn't able to complete her three term papers in one week, as she thought she'd be able to. Patty's situation depicts the:
(A) confirmation bias
(B) planning fallacy
(C) availability heuristic
(D) representativeness heuristic
(B) planning fallacy
Somewhere between
Her blue eyes and jeans
There's a heart that's been broken
Along with her dreams

These lines (from a Conway Twitty song) are much easier to remember than a list of eight Ebbinghaus' 3-letter nonsense syllables. Why?
(A) there are 24 letters in the Ebbinghaus list, but only 17 words in this part of the song
(B) the song is written as 4 lines rather than as a complete sentence, with all 17 words in a row; Ebbinghaus' nonsense syllables are not
(C) the song is meaningful, it rhymes, and it has a meter to it; Ebbinghaus's nonsense syllables are not meaningful, do not rhyme, ans do not have meter
(D) many Americans are familiar with Conway Twitty's song, while very few are familiar with Ebbinghaus' nonsense syllables
(C) the song is meaningful, it rhymes, and has a meter to it; Ebbinghaus' nonsense syllables are not meaningful, do not rhyme, and do not have meter
The habituation technique operates on the premise that infants:
(A) are able to discriminate their mothers' voice from other femal voices
(B) enjoy looing at simple patterns
(C) prefer to attend to novel stimuli
(D) will become fearful of novel stimuli
(C) prefer to attend to novel stimuli
A skeptic of scientific psychology points out that a large amount of psychological research uses college sophomores as participants. Which of the following arguments would you use to defend psychological research?
(A) the college sophomore problem does not invalidate results, but simply calls for more findings that will assess their generalizability
(B) in many areas, such as research on the human visual system, the processes are so basic that idividual differences should not be a factor
(C) college students are now much more diverse population of individuals that were used to studies conducted 50 years ago
(D)all of the above make good counter-arguments
(D) all of the above make good counter-arguments
The confidence expressed by a witness reporting his memory for the witnessed event is:
(A) a very good indicator of the accuracy of his memory
(B) a good indicator of the accuracy of his memory, but should not be trusted because the witness may be lying
(C) a very poor indicator of the accuracy of his memory
(D) hardly ever taken into account by a jury
(B) a good indicator of the accuracy of his memory, but should not be trusted because the witness may be lying
Evelyn's young daughter has accidentally locked herself in her room. Evelyn is anxiously trying to figure out how to unlock the door. Unfortunately, she does not realize that her screwdriver could be used to unlodk it. This situation illustrates:
(A) the representation problem
(B) functional fixedness
(C) a heuristic
(D) an algorithm
(B) functional fixedness
A(n) _____ is a set of steps which, if followed methodically, will guarantee a solution to a problem.
(A) algorithm
(B) heuristic
(C) strategy
(D) insight
(A) algorithm
With respect to language acquisition, the fundamental lesson of the sase of "Genie" is that:
(A) childhood abuse makes it virually impossible to have a agood life
(B) there is a narrow window of time when certain learning is possible
(C) language naturally develops, regardles of the nature of one's environment
(D) a child who is severely abused is incapable of learning language skills
(B) there is a narrow window of time when certain learning is possible
Subjects in memory experiments are sometimes asked to "count backwards by threes" during a retention interval between presentation of a list of words and being asked to recall the words. What is the most likely reason for the counting backwards task?
(A) the task helps the subjects to concentrate
(B) the task keeps the subjects interested
(C) the task prevents interference by other materials
(D) the task displaces the contents of working memory
(D) the task displaces the contents of working memory
The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon has been researched by having subjects:
(A) recall traumatic childhood events and then try to suppress those memories
(B) read definitions of relatively rare words and asking them to recall the words being defined
(C) read a word list while exposed to a subliminal stimulus and then asking them whether they remember seeing the stimulus
(B) read definitions of relaitvely rare words and asking them to recall the words being defined
Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences was partly influenced by:
(A) correlations among tests scores
(B) studies involving thousands of school children
(C) introspection
(D) observations of people with various kind of brain damage
(D) observations of people with various kinds of brain damage
Suppose your roomate mistakenly believes that there are more English words beginning with teh leter "K" thant hter are with the letter "K" in the third position. This error is due to your roommate's reliance on the
(A) reprsentativeness heuristic
(B) availability heuristic
(C) plannig fallacy
(D) confirmation bias
(B) availability heruistic
Which of the following is liekly to have the most difficulty remembering a person she met only a half hour ago?
(A) an 11-year-old girl with anorexia nervosa
(B) a mnemonist with Ebbinhaus syndrome
(C) a chronic alcoholic with Korsakoff syndrome
(D) a depressed patient who recieved electroconvulsive therapy three months ago
(C) a chronic alcoholic with Korsakoff syndrome
Tim and Jim are idential twins who were raised apart. Ned and Ted are fraternal twins who were raised together. Which pair of twins, if either, will have a greater degree of similarity between their IQ scores?
(A) Tim and Jim
(B) Ned and Ted
(C) There will be no appreciable differences between the IQ scores of the two sets of twins
(D) none of the above
(A) Tim and Jim
Your teacher tells you about a new theory regarding language acquisition in children. He informs you that, although this theory does account for some new findings, it does not explain many previous findings tha some older theories did explain. According to your teacher (and the book by Stanovich), this theory lacks
(A) convering evidence
(B) connectivity
(C) validity
(D) scientific consensus
(B) connectivity
In Bandura's Bobo doll study, children who observed an adult ignores the Bobo doll
(A) showed as much aggression to the doll as those who viewed an adult punching it
(B) showed as mych aggression to the doll as those who never saw an adult in the playroom
(C) showed less aggression to the doll than those who never saw an adult in the playroom
(D) were, surprisingly, the most aggressive group of children in the study
(C) showed less aggression to the doll than those who never saw an adult in the playroom
Why is elaborative rehearsal effective?
(A) less maintenance rehearsal, elaborative rehearsal increases the amount of time material is in working memory
(B) elaborative rehearsal increases the number of retrieval cues linked to an item
(C) elaborative rehearsal leads to shallower processing, which improves memory
(D) elaborative rehearsal makes use of mnemonic devices, which improves memory
(B) elaborative rehearsal increases the number of retrieval cues linked to an item
A major value of speech errors is that they:
(A) provide evidence that memory is typical a recontructive process
(B) suggests that attention is highly selective process
(C) shows the importance of Law of Effect in controlling behavior
(D) provided insight into planning that goes on when we produce speech
(D) provided insight into planning that goes on when we produce speech
An experimental subject is asked estimate the distance between a city on the east coast of the United States andone on the west coast of the United States and one in the midwest. What will the result show?
(A) it will take about the same amount of time to make each judgement, but the first judgement will be more accurate
(B) it will take about the same amount of time to make each judgement, but the second judgement will be more accurate
(C) the second judgement will take slightly longer than the first
(D) the first judgement will take slightly longer than the second
(D) the first judgement will take slightly longer than the second
There are two versions to the Whord (or Sapir-Whorf) hypothesis. Of these, which one asserts that there is a very stron cause-effect relationship between language and thought?
(A) propositional comprehension
(B) pragmatic inferenceing
(C) linguistic detwerminism
(D) linguistic relativity
(C) linguistic determinism
What is the function of an experimental control?
(A) an experimental control dictates when research can invlove human subjects
(B) an experimental control eliminates observer bias
(C) an experimental control serves no function in experiments
(D) an experimetnal control eliminates one or more alternative explanations of a phenomenon
(D) an experimental control eliminates oneor more alternative explanations of a phenomenon
Which of the following would be classified as an ill-defined problem?
(A) finding the dolution to a jigsaw puzzle
(B) figuring out how to win a game of tic-tac-toe
(C) finding a solution to the ongoing conflict in the Middle East
(D) solving the Tower of Hanoi puzzle
(C) finding a solution to the ongoing conflict in the Middle East
Ebbinghaus created nonsense syllables for his memory research because:
(A) he thought they would be easier to learn than words
(B) he thought that they would be more difficult to learn
(C) his primary interest was in learning an smemory of foreign language vocabularies
(D) he wanted to use materials that would not be contaminated by previously acquired associations
(D) he wanted to use materials that would not be contaminated by previously acquired associations
Many studies of memory for word lists yeid a U-shaped serial position curve. In these studies:
(A) confusion errors from teh beginning of the list tend to be phonological in nature, while errors at the end of the list tend to be semantically based
(B) the primacy effect is not affected by changing the presentaion rate
(C) the recency effect is affected by tasks interpolated between encoding and retrieval
(D) the recency effect is observed only if the participants are particularly attentive
(C) the recency effect is affected by tasks interpolated between endoding and retrieval
A friend of yours does not want her children to watchc certain television shows. When you ask why, she tells you that she has read about research indicating a strong positive correlation between the amount of violent television children view and their levels of aggressive behavior. You could point out that, in spite of the correlation, we still do not know whether the violent television is causing the aggressive behavior or if some children's tendency to be aggressive causes them to watch violent televion shows. The point you are trying to make is called
(A) the thrid variable proble
(B) the directionality problem
(C) a selection bias
(D) converging evidence
(B) the directionality problem
The issue of validity for IQ is more compley nowadays, due to:
(A) challenges to finding an appropriate normalization sample
(B) biased researcers
(C) biases in IQ tests
(D) the realization that there may be more than one type of intelligence
(D) the realization that there may be more than one type of intelligence
Your friend Emily participates in a psychology experiment where she has to press one key if a presented stimulus is a word, and another key if the stimulus is not a word. The data show tht ere response to the word "cat" were faster when the word follows the word "dog". This type of finding is called:
(A) repetition priming
(B) semantic priming
(C) free recall
(D) cued recall
(B) semantic priming
Thorndike's Law of Effect says that actions that subsequently lead to _____ are more likely to be repreated.
(A) achievement of goals
(B) pleasure
(C) the possibility of punishment
(D) a satisfying state of affairs
(B) pleasure
What is the most important difference between chess masters and average chess players?
(A) masters are more patient
(B) master have better short-term memory
(C) masters chunk the board position into larger units
(D) masters have better mental imagery
(C) masters chunk the board position into larger units
Apasia is caused by
(A) childhood abuse
(B) brain damage
(C) low intelligence
(D) illiteracy
(B) brain damage
The basic controversy of Herrnstein and Murry's (1994) book the Bell Curve centered around the idea that
(A) public schools should mandate IQ tests for admissions
(B) only non-whites need to take IQ tests
(C) racial differences in IQ are largely genetic
(D) any person's IQ can be increased
(C) racial differences in IQ are largely genetic
Mindy is curious about her new next-door neighbor. Another neighbor, Peg, has spoken with the new neighbor and describes her as "quiet, having lots of book smarts, and a bit socially aloof"; but she forgot to ask her about her occupation. Mindy chimes in and says, "she sounds like she must be a librarian!" Peg retorts, but i think, statistically speaking, there's a less than one percent chance she's a librarian. Peg's last statement highlights the importanc of the
(A) representativeness heuristic
(B) availability heuristic
(C) conformation bias
(D) base-rate rule
(D) base-rate rule
You have just finished reading an article in teh Washington Post about a "health epidemic" in Florida. The article mentions that more individuals are dying of immune system failures in Florida than any neighboring state. You are skeptical, however, because you know that Florida has a very large population of elderly individuals, who are more prone to immune disorders. Thus, you conclude that interpreting the higher incidence of deaths due to immune system failures in Florida is made difficult because of
(A) the third variable problem
(B) the directionality problem
(C) a selection bias
(D) a spurious correlation
(C) a selection bias
After being taught by his parents to wipe his face with a napkin, your toddler soon uses his shirt and the family couch to wipe his face also. Your toddler's behavior illustrates:
(A) spontaneous recovery
(B) shaping
(C) generalization
(D) discrimination
(C) generalization
In George Sperling's research on inconic memory, participants were presented with visual arrary of three rows of items. In the _____ procedure, they has to report as many of the items in the display as possible. In the ____ procedure, they has to report only one row of items.
(A) mnemonic, savings
(B) left-brain, right-brain
(C) top-dow, bottom-up
(D) whole report, partial report
(D) whole report, partial report
The fact that, when poor clack children moved from the rural south of Philadelphia in the 1940s, their IQs increased illustrates that:
(A) IQ tests are hopelessly flawed
(B) IQ tests are profoundly biased
(C) genetics play no role in determining intelligence
(D) the environment influences intellegence
(D) the environment influences intellegence
John Watson's claimthat "so-called thinking" is nothing but subvocal speech was eventually disproved by scientisis who showed that
(A) eyewitness testimony is very accurate, showing that memory is not constructive
(B) people who can still think when all their muscles are paralyzed
(C) dolphins and monkeys are capable of problem solving, and therefore thinking like humans
(D) thought occurs after emotional reactions, proving that thougth does not cause emotional responses
(B) people can still think when all their muscles are paralyzed
After being conditioned to be fearful of white rats, Little Albert was fearful of anything white and furry, such as a Santa Claus mask. This could be viewed as an example of
(A) aversive learning
(B) spontaneous recovery
(C) extinction
(D)stimulus generalization
(D) stimulus generalization
According to Stanovich (ch 6), how was facilitated communication in autistic children similar to the Clever Hans case?
(A) facilitated communication contained tactile cues from facilitators that determined that child's responses, similar to the visual cues of Clever Hans used from the trainer
(B) facillitated communication involved the children performing mathematical computations, similar to the ones Clever Hans performed
(C) both the autistic children and Clever Hans were shown tohave amazing talents never seen before
(D) both the autistic children and Clever Hans communicated verbally with the facilitator or trainer
(A) facilitated communication contained tactile cues from facilitators that determined the child's responses, similar to the tactile cues Clever Hans used from the trainer
Bartlett's (1932) classic study, where college students attempted to recall variou8s aspects of an unfamiliar story ("The War of the Ghosts"), primarily involved:
(A) motivated forgetting
(B) automatic processing
(C) reconstructive memory
(D) inherent bias
(C) reconstructive memory