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### 18 Cards in this Set

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 What are three important reasons why a knowledge of statistics is essential for anyone majoring in psychology, sociology or education? To understand the professional literature, to understand the rationale underlying research in behavioral science and to carry out behavioral science research. Descriptive Statistic A statistic used to summarize or describe the characteristics of set of data in a clear and convenient fashion. Inferential Statistic A statistic used to make possible inferences about what is happening in the population based on what is observed in a sample from that population. What must behavioral science researchers use inferential statistics? The time, cost and resources it would take to gather data from a whole population would be too much. Better to just use a sample. Population Is the group that consists of all the cases of interest Sample Any subgroup drawn from the specified population. Statistic A numerical quantity that summarizes some characteristic of a sample. Parameter The corresponding value of the characteristic(statistic) in the population. Why is it important to specify clearly the population from which a sample is drawn? If the sample does not correctly represent the mean, then the statistic will not match the parameter of the population. Interval Scale A scale used for physical measurement, with fixed units. Ratio Scales A scale in which there is an absolute zero, with nothing there. Nominal Scales Categories, with no numerical precision. Ordinal Scales Scales in which the data is ranked. Qualitative Data No obvious order to the categories and no regular intervals between them.(Nominal) Quantitative Data Data with the interval property, and precise measurement is needed. (Ratio/Interval) What is the difference between observational and experimental studies? Experiments involve measuring dependent variables that are expected to vary somewhat as a function of the different levels of one or more independent variables created by the researcher. Observational research involves comparing dependent variables to each other since we are not manipulating variables. Why is summation notation used by statisticians? Often times there is a lot of data to compile, and its easy shorthand for A+B+C+D... Its also frequently used in statistical work. What are the eight rules involving summation notation? The same total should be reached regardless the scores are added and subtracted. The Sum of multiplying XY is not the same as the Sum of X multiplied by the Sum of Y. Same for Squares. If you take the sum of a constant, it is just the constant N amount of times. The sum of X plus the Sum of a constant is just Sum of X plus Constant N; as well as subtraction.