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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Psychopathology
Study of:
Origins/causes
Symptoms
Development
Psychopathology
Normal vs, Crazy
Social and Cultural Context
Social Stigma
Social Stigma
Twitching
-pulled muscle vs. schiziphrenia
Misinformation in TV
Portrayed as murderers
Prone to violent
Psychotherapy
Reluctant to seek help - don't want to seem crazy so they hid it
What is a Psychological Disorder?
Behavioral and psychological symptoms that:
Cause significant personal distress
Impairs ability to function
OR BOTH
DSM-IV
Dignostic and Statistical Manual (4th edition) 1994
Over 250 disorders
Includes:
Symptons
Criteria
Causes
(of the disorder)
Written by many
Prevalence of disorders
Out of the Population
*48% in lifetime
*30% in past of 12 months
*80% do not recieve treatment
*3-5% need treatment immediately
Gender Differences
Women: Anxiety Depression
Men: Anti-Social personality
Substance abuse
Schizophrena
Diagnosis rates
Women are more likely to seek help than meen

Doctors treat men differently then women
Panic Attacks and Disorder
Panic Disorder
Panic Attacks
Panic Disorder
Type of anxiety disorder
Characertized by repeated episodes of intense anxiety or panic
Panic Attacks
Episode of intense fear or discomfort
Accompanied by physical symptoms
Panic attacks Facts
Rapidly escalates - they come on quickly
Peaks: 10-15 minutes
Sense of imminent danger
Decrease quickly also
Diagnostic Features (at least 4)
1. Rapid heart rate
2. sweating
3. Trembling or shaking
4. Shortness of breath
5. Chocking sensation
6. chest pains and discomfort
7. Nausea
8. Dizziness
9. Feelings of unreality
10. Feeling of losing control
11. Fear of dying
12. Numbness or tingling
13. Chills or hot flashes
Facts
ER - they go here cause they thing that they are dying.
Prevalence of panic attacks - 10% of healthy people will have 1 event
Panic Attacks to Panic Disorder
For a disorder diagnosis, person must:
Have experienced repeated panic attacks
And one of the following
at least 1 month of attacks
Worry about consequences of attacks
Signifcant change in behavior
Disorder can lead to....
Agoraphobia - which is avoidance of public (open) places where you might have an attack.
Panic Disorder
Begins - late in adolesence
Prevalence - 1-4% of population
Gender - women 2x as likely as men
Causes
Biological
Cognitive
Biological
Serotonin levels are down
norepinephrin down
brains respirtory alarm defect
Cognitive
Overly sensitive to fluctations in our body
Over react to bodiy changes
Treatment Approaches
Most widely used:
Drug Therapy - anti depressants
Cognitive-behavioral therapy - help them relizae bodily changes aren't link to imminent danger
Phobias
An excessive irrational fear
Disproportionate to threat
Disruption of daily life
Types of Phobias
Specific
Social
Agoraphobia
Specific Phobia
Intense, irrational fear of specific object or situation
Often begins in childhood
7-11% of population
woman 2x as likely
Social Phobias
Excessive fear of social interactions or situations
Social Phobia facts
Begins in childhood or adolescence
3-13% of population
More common in women
Agoraphobia
Fear of panic attack in public places
More common in wommen
Late adolescence or early adulthood
Explaining Phobias
Learning - Classical Conditioning
Biological - we were born with these fears
Cognitive - we engage in self-deafting thoughts
Treatment Approaches
Learning - most popular- desensitation
Cognitive - Therapist there to talk about thoughts
Drug - Paxell, soloft
Obessive-Compulsive Disorder
Life is Dominated by - repetitive thoughts and behaivors
Also
Causes marked distress
Occupy more than 1 hour a day
OR
Interfere with normal functioning
Obessions
Intrusive, uncontrollable thoughts
Compulsions
Behavior or mental act driven to perform
Obessions and Compluslions
Can have one or both

May or may not be related
OCD Facts
2-3% of population
Equal in men and women
Causes
Biological
Cognitive
Biological
Disfunction in frontal lobe
Disfunction in the caudate nucleus related to movement
Cognitive
Feel like they need to be perfect
Treatment Approaches
Drug - anti depressents
Exposure with response prevention - put in situtations where OCD will come up and not let them engage in behavior
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Persistent feelings of anxiety
Not triggered by specific object, situation, or activity
More on Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Constant Worriers
Everyday, minor things
Getting stuck in traffic
Well being of children
Facts on Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Frequently occurs with other disorders
Begins in mid-teens to mid-20's
Follows a life course
5% of population
2x as common in women
Causes
Learning
Cognitive
Biological
Learning
Have anxiety in one, so they carry it over to another disorder
Cognitive
Worries are exgattered
Biological
Imbalance of neurotransmitters
Over active amygdala
Treatment Approaches
Drug therapy - paxell
CBT - Cognitive Behavioral Therapy - therapist makes you think other things
Mood Disorders
Disturbances in mood that are:
Unusually severe or prolonged
Impair ability to function
Types of mood disorders
Depressive Disorders (unipolar)
Major depressive disorder
Dysthymic disorder
Mood Swing Disorders (Bipolar)
Bipolar disorder
Cyclothymic Disorder
Major Depressive Disorder
Occurence of 1 or more major depressive episodes
In the absence of a history or mania
Symptoms of Major Depression
Emotional
Behavioral
Cognitive
Physical
Emotional Symptoms
Sadness
Guilt
Emptiness
Disconnect
Behavioral Aymptoms
Less or no eye contact
Now smiles
Crying
Loss of Pleasure
Withdrawal
Cognitive symptoms
Difficulty thinking
Pessimism- glass is half empty, or think of bad situations
Suicidal thoughts
Physical Symptoms
Appetite - goes either way
Insomnia - inability to sleep
Anxiety
No interest in sex
Facts
"Common Cold"
Adequate treatment
Risk factors - age
socioechomic status
maratial status
4 episodes - major ones in their lives
Pervalence
More common in women
10-25% women
5-12% men
Why more commen in women?
Biological differences
Reporting bias
Diagnosis bias
Diagnostic features of major depressive episode
5 or more of following symptoms
During 2 week time period
At least one of depressed mood or loos of interest
Must cause distress/impairment
Not bereavement
Diagnostic Symptoms
Depressed mood
Loss of interest
Weight gain or loss
Insomnia or oversleeping
Agitation or slowing down
Fatigue
Worthlessness
Problems concentrating
Thoughts of death
Dysthymic Disorder
Defined - mild but chronic form of depression
Facts:
Child hood orgins
Constant
Occurrences:
8% women
4% men