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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Medical model
model for psychological disorder to be treated as diseases
DSM-IV-TR
three key elements for symptoms to qualify as a mental disorder
Manifested in symptoms that involve disturbances in behavior, thoughts, or emotions
one of the DSM-IV-TR
Symptoms associated with significant personal distress or impairment
one of the DSM-IV-TR
Symptoms stem from an internal dysfusion
:biological, psychological, or both
one of the DSM-IV-TR
Reliability
one of the problems with mental model/DSM diagnosis:
how different people diagnose patients
Interpretation rather than observable behavior
one of the problems with mental model/DSM diagnosis:
interpret (scale) not real world
Patient self-report
one of the problems with mental model/DSM diagnosis:
self-report vs. personality
Comorbidity
one of the problems with mental model/DSM diagnosis:
difficult to define which behavior is because of which mental disorder
Intergrated perspective
the fact that there are three factors intergrated
:biological, psychological, environmental
Diathesis-stress model
the model it states that most mental disorders are predisposed with a trigger (internal and external)
=environmental+genetic (heritable)
Schizophrenia
統合失調症
Positive symptoms
one of the symptoms of schizophrenia:
most patients do not experience/ additional
Delusions
one of the positice symptoms:
persecution, reference, being controlled, grandeur, guilt, thought insertion an withdrawal
Hallucinations
one of the positive symptoms which is unreal:
tactile, taste, visual, olfactory, but usually auditory
Negative symptoms
one of the symptoms of schizophrenia:
slowing down of bodily movements, flattened affect etc.
Alogia
one of negative symptoms:
poverty of speech
Avolition
one of negative symptoms:
loss of basic drives and motivation
Asociality
Loss of desire to form relationships
Anhedonia
Loass of ability to experience pleasure
Cognitive symptoms
one of the symptoms of schizophrenia:
especially memory
Prodromal
an early symptom that indicate the start of a disease before specific symptoms occur
Working memory
the first-degree relatives of schizophrenia will be impaired on here/ best predictor of functional outcome
N-back test
one of the working memory tests:
relation of prefrontal cortex dysfunction to working memory and symptoms in schizophrenia
Blunted affect
lack or decline in emotional response
Characteristic symptoms
2 or more of the symptoms each present for much of the time during a 1 month period or less are considered schizophrenia
Paranoid
妄想
one of the subtypes of schizophrenia/positive
Catatonic
緊張
one of the subtypes of schizophrenia/negative
Disorganized
one of the subtypes of schizophrenia/emotional distortion, blunting
Undifferentiated
one of the subtypes of schizophrenia/changeing symptoms
Residual
one of the subtypes of schizophrenia/remission, mild
Genetic predisposition
one of thhe biological factors: heritability
Early enviromental disruptions
one of the biological factors:
prenatal trauma, maternal influenza, oxygen deprivation during birth
Neurodevelopmental abnormalities
one of the biological factors:
abnormal pruning that leads to loss of cell bodies and grey matter
Dopamine hypothesis
a theory of which too much this substance cause schizophrenia
Generalized anxiety disorder
one of anxiety disorder:
un relenting worries but focused on any particular threat
Phobis disorder
one of anxiety disorders:
marked fear and avoidance of specific objects, activities or situations
Specific phobia
a disorder that involves an irrational fear of a particular object or situation that markedly interferes with an individual's ability
Social phobia
a disorder that involves an irrational fear of being publicly humiliated or embarrassed
Preparendness theory
the idea that people are instinctively predisposed toward certain fears
Panic disorder
one of the anxiety disorders
:sudden occurence of multiple psychological and physiological symptoms that contribute to a feeling of stark terror
Agoraphobic
one symptoms of panic disorder:
an extreme fear of venturing into public space
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
one of the anxiety disorders:
primary symptoms is unwanted, recurrent thoughts and actions/ often take on exaggerated meaning
Major depressive disorder
a disorder characterized by a severely mood that last 2 weeks or more and is accompanied by feelings of worthlessness and lack of pleasure, lethargy, and sleep and appetite disturbances
Dysthymia
same symptoms with major depressive disorder but less sever, lasts longer
Double depression
major depressive disorder + dysthymia
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
depression causes in high latitude etc.
Norepinephrine and serotonin
drugs that affect these can reduce depression
Helpless theory
the idea that individuals who are prone to depression automatically attribute negative experience to causes that are internal and global
Dissociative disorder
a condition in which normal cognitive processes are severely disjointed and fragmented, creating significant disruptions in memory, awareness, or personality that can vary in length from a matter of minutes to many years
Dissoiative identity disorder (DID)
the presence within an individual of two or more distinct identities that at different times take control of the individual's behavior
Dissociative amnesia
the sudden loss of memory for significant personal information
Dissociative figure
the sudden loss of memory gor one's history, accompanied by an abrupt departure from home and the assumptions of a new identity
Biolar disorder
an unstable emotional condition characterized by cycles of abnormal, persistent high mood and low mood
Personal disorder
disorder characterized by deeply ingrained, inflexible patterns of thinking, feeling, or relating to others or controlling impulses that cause distress or impaired functioning
Antisocial personaility disorder
a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood