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82 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Central nervous system
the brain and the spinal cord
Spinal cord
a long thin collection of nerve cells attached to the base of the brain and running the length of the spinal column
a bundle of nerve fibres that transmit information between the central nervous system and the body’s sense organs, muscles, and glands
Peripheral nervous system
the cranial and spinal nerves; that part of the nervous system peripheral to the brain and spinal cord
Brain stem
- The “stem” of the brain, including the medulla, pons, and mid-brain
Cerebral hemisphere
the largest part of the brain; covered by the cerebral cortex and containing parts of the brain that evolved most recently
a pair of hemispheres resembling the cerebral hemispheres but much smaller and lying beneath and in back of them; controls posture an =d movements, especially rapid ones
one of the bones that encase the spinal cord and constitue the vertebral column
the three-layered set of membranes that enclose the brain and spinal cord
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
the liquid in which the brain and spinal cord float; providea shock-absorbing cushion
Cerebral cortex
the outer layer of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain approximately 3 mm thick
Grey matter
the portions of the central nervous system that are abundant in cell bodies of neurons rather than axons. The color appears grey relative to white matter
White matter
the portions of the central nervous system that are abundant in axons rather than cell bodies of neurons, the color the color derives from the presence of the axons’ myelin sheaths.
Spinal nerve
a bundle of nerve fibres attached to the spinal cord; conveys sensory information from the body and carries messages to muscles and glands
Cranial nerve
a bundle of nerve fibres attached to the base of the brain; conveys sensory information from the face and head and carries messages to muscles and glands.
a nerve cell; consists of a cell body with dendrites and an axon whose branches end in terminal buttons that synapses with muscles fibres, gland cells , or other neurons
Glial cell
a cell of the central nervous system that provides support for neurons and supplies them with some essential chemicals
a cell body; the largest part of a neuron
a treelike part of a neuron on which other neurons from synapses
a long thin part of a neuron attached to the soma; divides into a few or many branches, ending in terminal buttons.
Dendritic spine
a small bud-like protuberance on the surface of a neuron’s dendrite
Terminal button
the rounded swelling at the end of the axon of a neuron; releases transmitter substance
Transmitter substance
a chemical released by the terminal button that causes the postsynaptic neuron to be excited or inhibited
Myelin sheath
the insulating material that encases most large axons
Action potential
a brief electrochemical event that is carried by an axon from the soma of the neuron to its terminal buttons; causes the release of a transmitter substance
A positively or negatively charged particle; produced when many substances dissolve in water
Ion channel
a special protein molecule located in the membrane of a cell; controls the entry or exit of particular ions
Ion transporter
a special protein molecule located in the membrane of a cell; actively transports ions into or out of the cell.
the junction between the terminal button of the neuron and the membrane of a muscle fibre, a gland, or another neuron
Presynaptic neuron
a neuron whose terminal buttons from synapses with and excited or inhibited by that neuron
Motor neuron
a neuron whose terminal buttons form synapses with muscle fibres. When an action potential travels down its axon, the associated muscle fibres will twitch.
Synaptic cleft
a fluid-filled gap between the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes; the terminal button releases transmitter substances into this space.
Receptor molecule
Receptor molecule- a special protein molecule located in the membrane of the postsynaptic neuron that responds to molecules of the transmitter substances receptors such as those that respond to opiates are sometimes found elsewhere on the surface of neurons.
the process by which a terminal button retrieves the molecules of the transmitter substance that it has jest released; terminates the effect of the transmitter substance on the receptors of the postsynaptic neuron
Sensory neuron
a neuron that detects changes in the external or internal environment and sends information about these changes to the central nervous system
a neuron located entirely within the central nervous system
a substance secreted in the brain that modulates the activity of neurons that contain the appropriate receptor molecules
a neuromodulator whose action is mimicked by a natural or synthetic opiate, such as opium, morphine, or heroin
Brain lesion
damage to a particular region of the brain; a synonym for experimental ablation
Stereotaxic apparatus
a device used to insert an electrode into a particular part of the brain for the purpose of recording electrical activity, stimulating the brain electrically, or producing localized damage
a thin electrode made of wire or glass that can measure the electrical activity of a single neuron
a method of brain study that measures the change in magnetic fields that accompany action potentials in the cerebral cortex
a procedure that collects solutions surrounding the brain’s neurons for subsequent chemical analysis
Transcranial magnetic stimulation
direct stimulation of the cerebral cortex induced by magnetic fields generated outside the skull
Brain plasticity
structural change in the brain resulting from experience
CT scanner
a device that uses a special X-ray machine and a computer to produce images of the brain that appear as slices taken parallel to the top of the skull.
Toward the front
toward the back
Frontal lobe
the front portion of the cerebral cortex, including Broca’s speech area and the motor cortex; damage impairs movement, planning, and flexibility in behavioural strategies
Parietal lobe
the region of the cerebral cortex behind the frontal lobe and above the temporal lobe; contains the auditory cortex
Occipital lobe
the rearmost portion of the cerebral cortex; contains the primary visual cortex
Primary somatosensory cortex
the region of the cerebral cortex that receives information directly from the somatosensory system (touch, pressure, vibration, pain and temperature): located in the front part of the parietal lobes.
residing in the side of the body opposite the reference point
Primary motor cortex
the region of the cerebral cortex that directly controls the movements of the body; located posterior to the frontal lobes
Sensory association cortex
those regions of cerebral cortex that receive information from the primary sensory areas
Prefrontal cortex
the anterior part of the frontal lobe; contains the motor association cortex
Motor association cortex
those regions of the cerebral cortex that control the primary motor cortex; involved in planning and executing behaviors
Corpus callosum
a large bundle of axon (“white matter”) that connects the cortex of the two cerebral hemispheres
Visual agnosia
the inability of a person who is not blind or recognize the identity or use of an object by means of vision; usually caused by damage to the brain
the process by which important physiological characteristics (such as body temperature and blood pressure) are regulated so that they remain at their optimum level
typical behavior- a behavior seen in all or most members of a species, such as nest building, special food-getting behaviors, involved in control of sleep
the part of the brain stem closest to the spinal cord; controls vital functions such as heart rate and blood pressure
the part of the brain stem just anterior to the medulla; involved in control of sleep
Mid brain
the part of the brain stem just anterior to the pons; involved in control of fighting and sexual behavior and in decreased sensitivity to pain during these behaviors
a region of the brain near the centre of the cerebral hemispheres. All sensory information except smell is sent to the thalamus and then relayed to the cerebral cortex.
a region of the brain located just above the pituitary gland; controls the automatic nervous system and many behaviors related to regulation and survival, such as eating, drinking fighting, shivering, and sweating
Pituitary gland
an endocrine gland attached to the hypothalamus at the base of the brain
Endocrine gland
a gland that secretes a hormone
a chemical substance secreted by an endocrine gland that has physiological effects on target cells in other organs
Target cell
a cell whose physiological processes are affected by a particular hormone; contains special receptor molecules that respond to the presence of the hormone
Automatic nervous system
the portion of the peripheral nervous system that controls the functions of the glands and internal organs
Sympathetic branch
the portion of the autonomic nervous system that activates functions that accompany arousal and expenditure of energy
Parasympathetic branch
the portion of the autonomic nervous system that activates functions that occur during a relaxed state
Limbic system
a set of interconnected structures of the brain important in emotional and species- typical behavior includes the amygdale, hippocampus, and limbic cortex
Limbic cortex
the cerebral cortex located around the edge of the cerebral hemispheres where they join with the brain stem; part of the limbic system
a part of the limbic system of the brain located deep in the temporal lobe; damage causes changes in emotional and aggressive behavior
a part of the limbic system of the brain located in the temporal lobe; plays important roles in learning
a drug that causes sedation; one of several derivatives of barbituric acid
Antianxiety drug
a “tranquilizer,” which reduces anxiety. The most common are chlordiazepoxide (Librium) and diazepam (valium)
a class of drug having anxiolytic (tranquilizing) effects; examples are Librium and valium
the decreased sensitivity to a drug resulting from its continued use
Withdrawal symptom
an effect produced by discontinuance of use of a drug after a period of continued use; generally opposite to the drug’s primary effects