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81 Cards in this Set

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a contemporary of Galileo and Kepler. He was a gifted French philospher, a physiologist, and a brilliant mathematician.
Rene Descartes
A _____ was defined as an action that occurred w/out the involovement of the mind / the souls.
reflex
Today, we know that the______ is present in animals and man, and makes the hormone melatonin.
pineal gland
According to ______,consciousness stems from a self that perceives the sensation of the body or brain, but it is distinct from the brain and the body.
Descartes
Until the 17th century, _____logic was the primary approach used for established scientific truth. The 'revelution' of the 17th century centered on seeing truth in a more relative manner.
Aristetotelian
_____ _____ was a brilliant Englishman.
He had a strong interest in technology.
He was a laywer, philospher, and a high gov't official. He viewed the human mind consisting of 3 essential faculties: memory, imagination, and reason. He wrote "Novum Organum."
Francis Bacon
____ ____ is English contemporary of Descartes. He was the first major figure of the modern era to embrace a physical explanation of consciousness.
Thomas Willis
____ was the 1st to view mental disorders as a biological illness rather than daemonic possession.
Willis
Willis followed the ideas of the French philosopher/astronomer named_____ _____.
Pierre Gassendi
____ is an inflammation of the membrane tissue that surround the brain and spinal cord.
Meningitis
___ ____ ____ established the modern empirical approach to physics, and the importance of the scientific method.
Sir Isaac Newton
_____ invented a reflecting telescope and discovered gravity.
Sir Isaac Newton
___'s dominant interest was in the question of how best to make rational and peaceful decisions about conflicting political, ideological, or religious views.
John Locke
_____is often considered the "Father of Experimental Psychology."
John Locke
trick:try to remember that he was like a "father."
____was the last great philospher to address the mind/body problem prior to the onset of modern brain science at the beginning of the 19th century.
Immanuel Kant
_____believed that humans have innate knowledge and use reason.
-believed that rational thought depends upon data from the physical world, which is obtained through our senses.
Immanuel Kant
____, a German, was interested in how the brain processes information
Wilhelm Wund
"Do we really have control over our fate"?
FREE WILL VS FATE
"To what degree are we animals?"
MAN VS. ANIMAL
"Consciousness"
WHAT IS ITS ROOT? WHERE DOES IT COME FROM?
Psychobiology does not take a deterministic view. The environment modifies genetic potential.
FREE WILL VS ARGUMENT
_____ = "letting out the bad spirit."
cutting holes in the skull.
trephination
_____dissected animals and identified motor and sensory nerves.
Galen
____are the site where God directs man's behavir, according to St. Augustine.
ventricles
It was believed that by St. Agustine ____took away the waste products and could convey information.
ventricles
____was an Italian physician who wrote the 1st book on human anatomy. His comparative animal studies showed that man's ventricles were not unique.
Vesalius
____drew very accurate [drawings] of the human body, which were later published and made into prints by the Gutenberg Printing Press.
Vesalius
____believed the Earth was round. The church believed him, because he incorporated religion in his theory.
Ptolemy
____claimed that the ventricles in our brains are a source of knowledge in which God directs us.
St. Agustine
___'s logical ideas didn't sit well with the Church.
Aristotle
____ was a French mathematician, philosopher, and psysiologist. He was the first to merge phylosophical and scientific thinking in connection with the brain.This idea of thought is called ____.
Descartes; Dualism
____dualism, in particular, claimed that the mind and the brain are different entities, but come together at the pineal gland.
Descarte's
According to _____, humans are unlike animals in their thought process, as animals are unable to think logically.
Descartes
____observed the night sky for 30 yrs and made measurements of the planetary mvmnts.
Copernicus
During the period of Copernicus' findings, the ____was occuring.
Reformation
____proposed that there were other galaxies and that space was infinite.
Bruno
____confirmed Copernicus' belief by using a telescope.
Galileo
____published the 1st mathematical tables of the planetary mvmnts in the night sky.
Johannes Kepler
__ ____ ____ is the Father of the Scientific Method.
Sir Francis Bacon
The piece of writing entitled _____ ______claims that the human mind is equipped to discover nature through observation and reason, rather than through abstract reasoning alone.
"Novum Organum"
The mind/brain problem: ___ vs____
Locke vs Kant
1 Person's views against another
___was very much of an Empirist. Our modern ideas about Behaviorism came mostly from ____.
Locke
___tried to establish a view that was both Empirical and Metaphysical, but ultimately failed.
Kant
the idea of "tabla rasa" came from ____.
Locke
Locke's position was a precursor to _____'s Behaviorism.
John B. Watson's
___spent his whole life trying to establish a philosophical system that could balance rational thought with a sense of what he teremed 'moral duty.'
Kant
___tried to synthesize NATIVIST and EMPIRICAL positions into a philosophical system that could explain the mind.
Kant
The Scientific Method emphasized ___ over ____.
reason over emotion
____helped to uncover faulty premises hidden w/in language.
Syllogism.
____created Syllogism
Aristotle
____is a type of reasoning that starts with a general statement, and then concludes with a specific statement.
Induction
___ is a type of reasoning that starts with a specific statement, and then concludes with a general statement.
Deduction
___ came up with novel insights about brain function and localization, and was correct on all accounts.
Thomas Willis
The ___ is a brain region associated with memory and thinking.
cortex
The ____ ____is a brain region related to motor function.
Corpus Striatum
The ____regulates basic life systems such as respiration.
Brainstem
The ___is a brain region related to motor control.
Cerebellum
The __ ___ ___ is the joining area of several arteries at the bottom (inferior) side of the brain.
Circle of Willis
At the ___ ___ ___, the internal carteroid arteries branch into smaller arteries that supply oxygenated blood to over 80% of the cerebrum.
Circle of Willis
___ proposed that the heart's role was to suck blood out of the veins in order to infuse it with vital spirits.
Galen
____was an English physician who established a scientific basis for modern medicine. He was perceived by society as a quack-he went against the social grain. 20 years later he was eleavted back to his original position.
William Harvey
____ ____ is today most-noted for his studies with the microscope, and in particular his cork-drawing.
Robert Hooke
___ discovered cells .
Robert Hooke
____discovered the 12 cranial nerves.
Willis
The ___ ___ was the first battery.
Leyden Jar
____'s written experiments made people believe that his experiments were true; (Maybe the body DOES produce electricity).
Galvani's
The brain initially has a ____shape. By 25 days, there exists the ____ ____. By 40 days days all of these have developed (4 things):___, ___, ___, &___.
tube; neural tube;
1) forebrain
2)midbrain
3)hindbrain
4)spinall cord
C1 to C8 of the Dermatones consist of the ___ nerves.

T1 to T12 of the " " consist of the ___ nerves.

L1 to L5 of the " " consist of the ___ nerves.

S1 to S5 of the " " consist of the ___ nerves.
cervical; thoracic; lumbar; sacral
A ___ view is one that goes from from left to right (horizontal).
Saggital
The brainstem consists of the __, ___, & ____.
hindbrain, midbrain,and forebrain.
The function of the Medulla is ____.
The Retucular Formation's function is ___.
The Pon's is for ___.
The Cerebellum is for ___&____.
medulla=or life support systems.
RF= for arousal
Pons=sleep and dreaming
Cerebellum=motor coordination & learning.
The ____consists of the Medulla, the Reticular Formation, the Pons, and the Cerebellum.
HIndbrain
The Midbrain consists of the ___ ___, ___ ___, ___ ___, and the ___ ____.
Inferior Colluculus, Superior Colliculus, Substantia Nigra, and the Ventrical Tegmental Area (VTA).
The ____'s function is auditory tracking.
The ___'s function is Visual Tracking.
The substantia Nigra's function is ___.
The Ventral Tegmental Area's function is ____.
Inferior Colliculus; Superior Colliculus;

Motor movements, and the Reward system.
The ___ (subcortical) consists of these structures:

Basal Ganglia
Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Hippocampus
Amygdala
Forebrain
The forebrain(subcortical) consists of these 5 structures:
Basal Ganglia
Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Hippocampus
Amygdala
The Basal Ganglia's function is ___.
The___ sends sensory info to the cortex (sensory relay center).
The Hypothalamus function is____.
The ___ is for learning and memory.
The Amygdala's function is____.
BG: feedback to the cortex about motor mvmnts.
Thalamus: Sensory relay center to the Cortex
Hypothalamus: Motivation and EmotioN, and auton,nvs system Regulation
Hippocampus: Learning and Memory
Amygdala: Organizes response patterns for fear.
The ___stain can be used to visualize the dendritic tree and spines of neurons in the brain.
Golgi
The Frontal Lobe's function is ____.
The Occipital Lobe's function is___.
The ___'s function is Spatial Awareness and Bodily Sense Perceptions.
Frontal Lobe: Planning, conscious motor mvments, social behavior, attention, short-term memory, and speech production.
Occipital Lobe: Vision, motion perception, and color perception.
Parietal Lobe: Spatial awareness, bodily sense perceptions
Temporal Lobe: Language, speech comprehension, and hearing
___ is the region where primary sensory or motor info is processed.
The Sensory Cortex's function is____.
The Associational Cortex's function is___.
Primary Cortex: region where primary sensory or motor info is processed.

Secondary Cortex: region adjoining primary cortex that elaborates primary info and integrates it w/ other sensory info.

Association Cortex: regions that are involved in conscious perception and abstract thought, including language.
The Parasympathetic Nvs System does all of the following EXCEPT:
a) stimulates activity
b)constricts bronchi
c) dilates pupil
c) dilates pupil