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81 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
a contemporary of Galileo and Kepler. He was a gifted French philospher, a physiologist, and a brilliant mathematician.
Rene Descartes
A _____ was defined as an action that occurred w/out the involovement of the mind / the souls.
Today, we know that the______ is present in animals and man, and makes the hormone melatonin.
pineal gland
According to ______,consciousness stems from a self that perceives the sensation of the body or brain, but it is distinct from the brain and the body.
Until the 17th century, _____logic was the primary approach used for established scientific truth. The 'revelution' of the 17th century centered on seeing truth in a more relative manner.
_____ _____ was a brilliant Englishman.
He had a strong interest in technology.
He was a laywer, philospher, and a high gov't official. He viewed the human mind consisting of 3 essential faculties: memory, imagination, and reason. He wrote "Novum Organum."
Francis Bacon
____ ____ is English contemporary of Descartes. He was the first major figure of the modern era to embrace a physical explanation of consciousness.
Thomas Willis
____ was the 1st to view mental disorders as a biological illness rather than daemonic possession.
Willis followed the ideas of the French philosopher/astronomer named_____ _____.
Pierre Gassendi
____ is an inflammation of the membrane tissue that surround the brain and spinal cord.
___ ____ ____ established the modern empirical approach to physics, and the importance of the scientific method.
Sir Isaac Newton
_____ invented a reflecting telescope and discovered gravity.
Sir Isaac Newton
___'s dominant interest was in the question of how best to make rational and peaceful decisions about conflicting political, ideological, or religious views.
John Locke
_____is often considered the "Father of Experimental Psychology."
John Locke
trick:try to remember that he was like a "father."
____was the last great philospher to address the mind/body problem prior to the onset of modern brain science at the beginning of the 19th century.
Immanuel Kant
_____believed that humans have innate knowledge and use reason.
-believed that rational thought depends upon data from the physical world, which is obtained through our senses.
Immanuel Kant
____, a German, was interested in how the brain processes information
Wilhelm Wund
"Do we really have control over our fate"?
"To what degree are we animals?"
Psychobiology does not take a deterministic view. The environment modifies genetic potential.
_____ = "letting out the bad spirit."
cutting holes in the skull.
_____dissected animals and identified motor and sensory nerves.
____are the site where God directs man's behavir, according to St. Augustine.
It was believed that by St. Agustine ____took away the waste products and could convey information.
____was an Italian physician who wrote the 1st book on human anatomy. His comparative animal studies showed that man's ventricles were not unique.
____drew very accurate [drawings] of the human body, which were later published and made into prints by the Gutenberg Printing Press.
____believed the Earth was round. The church believed him, because he incorporated religion in his theory.
____claimed that the ventricles in our brains are a source of knowledge in which God directs us.
St. Agustine
___'s logical ideas didn't sit well with the Church.
____ was a French mathematician, philosopher, and psysiologist. He was the first to merge phylosophical and scientific thinking in connection with the brain.This idea of thought is called ____.
Descartes; Dualism
____dualism, in particular, claimed that the mind and the brain are different entities, but come together at the pineal gland.
According to _____, humans are unlike animals in their thought process, as animals are unable to think logically.
____observed the night sky for 30 yrs and made measurements of the planetary mvmnts.
During the period of Copernicus' findings, the ____was occuring.
____proposed that there were other galaxies and that space was infinite.
____confirmed Copernicus' belief by using a telescope.
____published the 1st mathematical tables of the planetary mvmnts in the night sky.
Johannes Kepler
__ ____ ____ is the Father of the Scientific Method.
Sir Francis Bacon
The piece of writing entitled _____ ______claims that the human mind is equipped to discover nature through observation and reason, rather than through abstract reasoning alone.
"Novum Organum"
The mind/brain problem: ___ vs____
Locke vs Kant
1 Person's views against another
___was very much of an Empirist. Our modern ideas about Behaviorism came mostly from ____.
___tried to establish a view that was both Empirical and Metaphysical, but ultimately failed.
the idea of "tabla rasa" came from ____.
Locke's position was a precursor to _____'s Behaviorism.
John B. Watson's
___spent his whole life trying to establish a philosophical system that could balance rational thought with a sense of what he teremed 'moral duty.'
___tried to synthesize NATIVIST and EMPIRICAL positions into a philosophical system that could explain the mind.
The Scientific Method emphasized ___ over ____.
reason over emotion
____helped to uncover faulty premises hidden w/in language.
____created Syllogism
____is a type of reasoning that starts with a general statement, and then concludes with a specific statement.
___ is a type of reasoning that starts with a specific statement, and then concludes with a general statement.
___ came up with novel insights about brain function and localization, and was correct on all accounts.
Thomas Willis
The ___ is a brain region associated with memory and thinking.
The ____ ____is a brain region related to motor function.
Corpus Striatum
The ____regulates basic life systems such as respiration.
The ___is a brain region related to motor control.
The __ ___ ___ is the joining area of several arteries at the bottom (inferior) side of the brain.
Circle of Willis
At the ___ ___ ___, the internal carteroid arteries branch into smaller arteries that supply oxygenated blood to over 80% of the cerebrum.
Circle of Willis
___ proposed that the heart's role was to suck blood out of the veins in order to infuse it with vital spirits.
____was an English physician who established a scientific basis for modern medicine. He was perceived by society as a quack-he went against the social grain. 20 years later he was eleavted back to his original position.
William Harvey
____ ____ is today most-noted for his studies with the microscope, and in particular his cork-drawing.
Robert Hooke
___ discovered cells .
Robert Hooke
____discovered the 12 cranial nerves.
The ___ ___ was the first battery.
Leyden Jar
____'s written experiments made people believe that his experiments were true; (Maybe the body DOES produce electricity).
The brain initially has a ____shape. By 25 days, there exists the ____ ____. By 40 days days all of these have developed (4 things):___, ___, ___, &___.
tube; neural tube;
1) forebrain
4)spinall cord
C1 to C8 of the Dermatones consist of the ___ nerves.

T1 to T12 of the " " consist of the ___ nerves.

L1 to L5 of the " " consist of the ___ nerves.

S1 to S5 of the " " consist of the ___ nerves.
cervical; thoracic; lumbar; sacral
A ___ view is one that goes from from left to right (horizontal).
The brainstem consists of the __, ___, & ____.
hindbrain, midbrain,and forebrain.
The function of the Medulla is ____.
The Retucular Formation's function is ___.
The Pon's is for ___.
The Cerebellum is for ___&____.
medulla=or life support systems.
RF= for arousal
Pons=sleep and dreaming
Cerebellum=motor coordination & learning.
The ____consists of the Medulla, the Reticular Formation, the Pons, and the Cerebellum.
The Midbrain consists of the ___ ___, ___ ___, ___ ___, and the ___ ____.
Inferior Colluculus, Superior Colliculus, Substantia Nigra, and the Ventrical Tegmental Area (VTA).
The ____'s function is auditory tracking.
The ___'s function is Visual Tracking.
The substantia Nigra's function is ___.
The Ventral Tegmental Area's function is ____.
Inferior Colliculus; Superior Colliculus;

Motor movements, and the Reward system.
The ___ (subcortical) consists of these structures:

Basal Ganglia
The forebrain(subcortical) consists of these 5 structures:
Basal Ganglia
The Basal Ganglia's function is ___.
The___ sends sensory info to the cortex (sensory relay center).
The Hypothalamus function is____.
The ___ is for learning and memory.
The Amygdala's function is____.
BG: feedback to the cortex about motor mvmnts.
Thalamus: Sensory relay center to the Cortex
Hypothalamus: Motivation and EmotioN, and auton,nvs system Regulation
Hippocampus: Learning and Memory
Amygdala: Organizes response patterns for fear.
The ___stain can be used to visualize the dendritic tree and spines of neurons in the brain.
The Frontal Lobe's function is ____.
The Occipital Lobe's function is___.
The ___'s function is Spatial Awareness and Bodily Sense Perceptions.
Frontal Lobe: Planning, conscious motor mvments, social behavior, attention, short-term memory, and speech production.
Occipital Lobe: Vision, motion perception, and color perception.
Parietal Lobe: Spatial awareness, bodily sense perceptions
Temporal Lobe: Language, speech comprehension, and hearing
___ is the region where primary sensory or motor info is processed.
The Sensory Cortex's function is____.
The Associational Cortex's function is___.
Primary Cortex: region where primary sensory or motor info is processed.

Secondary Cortex: region adjoining primary cortex that elaborates primary info and integrates it w/ other sensory info.

Association Cortex: regions that are involved in conscious perception and abstract thought, including language.
The Parasympathetic Nvs System does all of the following EXCEPT:
a) stimulates activity
b)constricts bronchi
c) dilates pupil
c) dilates pupil