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140 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A general concept referring to an individual's positive review of self, others, relationships, and the enviornment; it must be viewed in terms of degree as all individuals experience varying degrees of this at different times in their lives.
Mental Health
Presentation of clinically significant behavior or psychological syndrome or pattern as defined by the American Psychiatric Association.
Mental Disorder
Relationship theories consist of:
Peplau's Theory of Interpersonal relatonships, Erikson, Tomlin, & Swian's Modeling and Role-Modeling
Caring Theories include:
Watson's Theory of Transpersonal Caring-Healing, Leininger's culture care theory, and Boykin and Schoenhofer's Theory of Nursing as caring.
Theories based on the notion of when nursing is needed include:
Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory, Roy's Adaptation Model, and Neuman's Systems Model
Theories of pyschosocial development
Frued's theory of psychosexual development, Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, Sullivan's Interpersonal theory
Theories of human cognitive development:
Piaget's state theory of the cognitive development of children, Perry's theory of young adult cognitive development, Belenky et al's theory of the way women know
Three phases of nurse-client relationship
Comprises all that is learned through socialization, shared by all group members, and associated with adaptation to the environmen. It includes knowledge beliefs, art, morals, law, and customs.
Best person to assist with interpreting for a non-English speaking client
Cultural facilitator or cultural broker
The study of causes and distribution of diseases in a population
Goal in epidemiology
To better understand how frequently diseases occur in a population and in whom they are most likely to occur, and to document the natural history of the diseases
This gives the nurse a method of evaluating an ethical dilemma before drawing conclusions about an issue.
The Value Analysis Model
In nursing, _____ is defined as as a critical situation, stage, or life event in which a person is called on to respond and adapt to the unexpected.
Kind of crisis when an event poses a challenge to an individual
Kind of crisis in which a person's growth and development must adjust and adapt to new life patterns.
Kind of crisis where a situation when a person experiences culture shock
Kind of crisis of a proprotion to impact an entire community
Each person has _____ energy. When it's used up the person is left in a state of ______.
Which theory includes the adaptive potential assessment model, which provides the nurse language to describe the client's adaptation to stress.
Modeling and Role-Modeling
Which theory sugguests that listening to the client and understanding the person's subjective experience of the crisis is of the utmost importance.
Watson's theory of caring
What is the goal of crisis intervention?
Long term or short term?
To return the person to normal life.
Short terms.
A subjective feeling of uneasiness associated with the autonomic nervous system
What is the difference in anxiety and fear?
Anxiety - generalized response
Fear - to a specific object
Nursing theory that provides direction for nursing care, beginning with the need to establish trust and understand the client's subjective experience of emotion.
Modeling and Role-Modeling
An individual experienceing schizophrenia may present with:
diosodered thoughts, imcomprehensible language, loss of function, delusions, and hallucinations.
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia:
Outward behaviors that clearly display pathology such as:

disordered thoughts
Negative symptoms of schizophrenia:
Behaviors that represent a change from the individual's prior personality and lead to social isolation and anhedonia
A generally irreversible condition characterized by memory loss
Onset Rapid or Slow?
Slow onset
A harbinger of an acute medical condition and is characterized by a clouding of consciousness.
Onset Rapid or Slow?
Rapid onset
True or False??
Intellectual function diminishes with age?
True or False???
Confusion should not be used as a label for the behavioral manifestations or impairments in cognition or or memory loss.
Memory deficits pose a serious threat to: ____ & ____
Self esteem & identity.
Risk factors for depression in the elderly
multiple losses, financial strain, poor health
Symptoms of depression in elderly
insomnia & physical complaints
Risk of suicide High or Low in elderly?
Axis one identifies:
Clinical disorders such as Major depressive disorder recurrent
Axis two identifes:
Personality Disorders and conditions of mental retardation
Axis three identifies:
General Medical conditions
Axis four identifies:
Psychosocial and environmental factors: ex recent divorce
Axis five identifies:
Global Assessent functionaing (GAF)
Public Space is:
12 Feet
Talking to a classroom
Social Space is:
9-12 Feet
Walking down street or in a restaurant
Personal Space is:
18 inches to 4 feet
Students in a classroom
Intimate Space is:
Less than 18 inches
Therapeutic communication techniques:
Listening, Silence, Broad Openings, Restating, clarification, reflection, focusing, informing, suggesting, confronting.
Defense mechanisms:
Denial, projection, repression, rationalization, infrojection, displacement, reaction formation, regression, suppression, sublimation, symbolization
Lets the client know that the nurse wants to listen and permit the client a wide range of responses.
Broad Openings
Repeats main message clinet has expressed. Also allows the nurse to verify understanding of the clients message
"Are you saying that?" Clients idea in a simple statement
Powerful tool to bring out important aspects of the clients feelings and to put them in the context of when and where they occur. Use SPARINGLY!
Nurse directs conversation to focus on topic of particular importance or relevance to client.
Giving facts and information
Encourages clients to consider alternatives to be therapeutic, the nurse must not tell the client what to do or omplicitly take responsibility for the decision and outcome away from the client
Communication that points out inconsistencies or incongruencies between feelings, toughts, and actions.
Negation of reality of threatening situations, depsite factual evidence.
Attribution of one's thoughts, feelings, or impulse to others.
Unconscious blocking form awareness material that is threatening or painful.
Intellectual explaining away of threatening circumstances
Incorporating, without exam or thought the qualities or attitudes of others
Transfer of feelings or reactions evoked by one topic or event to another that is less threatening.
Expression of a feeling that is opposite of one's authenic feeling or of feelings that would be appropriate in the situation. Ex. brings gift to nurse @ whom he's really mad at.
Reaction formation
Retreat to previous developmental level
Conscious or unconscious attempt to keep threatening material out of consciousness.
Channeling of social unacceptalbe impulses into socially acceptable activities
Use of object, idea, or act ot express emotion that is not expressed directly
5 aims of Erkison:
1. Build Trust
2. Promote positive oreintation
3. promote perceived control
4. Promote strengths
5. Set mutual goals that are health directed.
Caplans stages of crisis:
Stage One:
A situation or threat to individual, resulting in anxiety. uses coping mechanisms. If anxiety not reduced enters next stage.
Caplans stages of crisis:
Stage Two:
Anxiety increases and the persons ability to cope decreases. Person feels pressure and is unable to respond.
Caplans stages of crisis:
Stage Three:
Anxiety escalates. Uses every means available to bring anxiety level and the situation under control. If phase
Caplans stages of crisis:
Stage Four:
PANIC.. May exhibit depression or frank psychosis.
A stimulus that an individual perceives as challenging or harmful.
Selye what theory??
GAS General Adaptation Syndrome
GAS involves what 3 phases?
alarm stage, stage of resistance, and stage of exhaustion
Erikson and colleagues developed Adaptive Potential Assessment Model (APAM) to describe 3 states of coping potential. What are they?
Arousal, Equilibrium, Impoverishment.
Focus of crisis?
Deal with the here and now.
Goal of intervention with crisis?
Reestablish equillibrium and balance.
A state wherin a person feels a stong sense of dread, frequently accompanied by physical symptoms of inceased heart rate, respiratory rate, elevated BP, without having a specific source or reason for the emotions.
A state wherein a person feels a stong sense of dread, with autonomic nervous system responses that are focused on a specific object or event - f
Pwerful tool to accurately measure blood flow patterns in the brain.
Important neurotransmitter in anxiety disorders
Stages of anxiety:
Tension of day to day living; alert perceptiion field, can motivate learning
Missing bus
Stages of anxiety:
Focuses on immediate concerns; perceptual field is narrowed; individual exhibits selective inattention
Taking exam
Stages of anxiety:
Focuses on specific detail. Perception field greatly narrowed
Witnessing a car wreck
Stages of anxiety:
Individual experiences a sense of awe, dread, and/or terror; individual loses control, there is a disorganization of the personality
Experiencing an earthquake and unable to cope.
Primary symptom of generalized anxiety disorder?
Excessive anxeity or dread.
Considered excessive when present more days that not for a period of 6 mths or more
Genralized anxiety d/o must possess 3 or more of:
restlessness, easy fatiue, diffiuclty concentrating, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbances
Condition characterized by discrete episodes of intense anxiety that begin abruptly and reach a peak within 10 minutes
Panic Disorder
With panic d/o must have 4 of these:
palpitations or rapid heart rate, sweating, trembling, short of breath, sensation of choking, chest pain, nausea, dizziness, fear of losing control, fear of dying, numbness or tingling, chills or hot flashes, and some sense of altered reality.
Fear of going out into public places?
Obsessions are:
Compulsions are:
Examples of obessions:
Fear of self-contamination, that forgot how to do something important, a need to have thins in ones life in a particular physcial arrangement
Goal of compulsions:
To reduce anxiety or distress.
True or False
With OCD you can only have one or the other never both.
False. You can have obsessions, compulsions, or both.
With anxiety, according to Erikson's five things, which two are most important?
1. Build trust
2. Modeling the clients world.
Clients who manifest with characteristics of manic depressive d/o and schizophrenia are diagnosed with:
Schizoaffective disorder
word thats made up
neologistic words
Going off the point or subject
Failure to reach a goal or stick to the original point
Speech that is not logically connected
Group of disconnected words
Word salad
A marked decrease in reactivity to the environment, sometimes reaching an extreme degree of complex unawareness, maintaining a rigid posture and resisting efforts to be moved the assumption of bizarre postures
Whats the major defining characteristic of pyschosis
Type of delusion that involves perceptions of importance; often believe to have specific powers or religous messhiah's
Type of delusion where they believe others intend to do them harm.
Common example
Persecutory or paranoid
food poisioning
Type of delusions that the client believes that common events, passages in songs, patterns of clouds in the sky, comments of passer-by refer specifically to them
Sensory experiences not perceptible to other nonpsychotic individuals.
Most commonly:
Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia:
disordered thoughts, delusions, hallucinations
Negative symptoms of Schizophrenia:
Flattened affect, alogia, avolition
tendency to speak little and when speaking openly, to use brief and often seemingly empty phrases.
Tendency to lack motivation for work or other goal-directed activities
To diagnose Schizophrenia must have ____ postivie or negative symptoms for a significant portion of the time during a one month period with some associated social or occupational dysfunction.
Major genetic components:
Hippocampus smaller; ventricles larger
What is the goal of Schizophrenia?
To reduce both the positive and negative symptoms to maximize functional outcome.
With Schizophrenia when is suicide more likely to occur?
When positive symptoms are improving.
Temporary and reversible, a disorder in thought and level of alertness.
Chronic and mainly a disorder of memory, cognition, and behavior.
Depression mistaken as dementia
The process by which a person "knows the world" and interacts iwth it.
Characterized by a disturbances of consciouness and a change in cognition that develops over a short period of time usually hours or days
Delirium resluts from an abnormality in the ____ and person is disoriented to ____ & _____.
Time and Place
Common causes of delirium:
Infections, dehydration, adverse drug reactions, electrolyte imbalances, hypoglycemia, hypoxia.
True or False:
Delirium is a medical emergency?
Characterived by development of multiple cognitive deficits that include an impairment of memory and at least one of the following:
aphasia, apraxia, agnosia
Loss of ability to recognize objects:
Most common type of dementia
Cause unknown
2nd most common type of dementia is:
Greatest risk factors for it:
Vasuclar - HTN and cardiovascular disease are greatest risk factors
Which anxiety D/O am I?
Anxiety focused on a variety of life events or activities. Char by restlessness, fatigue, difficulty in concentrating, irritability, muscle tension, sleep disturbances
Generalized anxiety disorder
Which anxiety D/O am I?
Discrete episode of intesne anxiety that begin abruptly and reach a peak within about 10 mins. Char by palpitations, sweating, trembling, SOB, sensation of choking, chest pain, nausea, dizziness, fear of losing control, fear of dying, sense of altered reality
Panic Disorder
Which anxiety D/O am I?
Acute anxiety in crowds; fear of being alone; fear in any physical setting from which the individual may have trouble escaping. Char by intense feelings of anxiety and or fear of losing control that results in either refraining from going out or avoiding situations that may bring about anxiety.
Which anxiety D/O am I?
Persisten, excessive, or unreasonable fear of a specific object or situation . Char by fears that interfere markedly with life activities.
Which anxiety D/O am I?
Occurrence of recurrent thoughts, images, and/or impulses that are intrusive and inappropriate, casuing anxiety and coupled with repetitive actions or behaviors performed to reduce anxiety.
Which anxiety D/O am I?
After exposure to a significant, life-threatening event, the experience of anxiety symptoms in which the event is reexperienced through recollections. Char by: recureent recollectioms, dreams, hallucinatory-like flashbacks, impairment of social functioning.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
Bleuler's 4 A's of Assessment
Associative looseness
3 reasons for emergency commitment:
Harm to self
harm to others
Proven they can't take care of self
Goal of ID
minimize pain and maximize pleasure
The superego is:
logical and considers consequences (conscience)
The ego is:
the self
Right protected by the U.S. Constitution that permits a speedy legal hearing and evaluation for any individual who claims he is being detained illegally.
Habeas Corpus
After the 48-72 hour period has lapsed, legally emepowered mental health providers can petition the court for a lengthier period of hospitalization known as:
Civil commitments