Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/44

Click to flip

44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Biological Psychology
The study of hte physiological, evolutionary, and developmental mechanisms of behavior and experience.
Physiological Explanation
Relates a behavior to the activity of the brain and other organs.
Ontogenic Explanation
Describes the development of a sturcture or a behavior.
Evolutionary Explanation
Reconstructs the evolutionary history of a structure or behavior.
Functional Explanation
Describes WHY a structure or behavior evolved as it did.
Mind-Body or Mind-Brain Problem
What is the relationship between the mind and the brain?
Dualism
The belief that mind and body are different kinds of substance- mental substance and physical substance - that exist independently.
Monism
The belief that the universe consists of only one kind of substance.
Materialism
The view that everything that exists is material, or physical.
Mentalism
The view that only the mind really exists and that the physcal world could not exist unless some mind were aware of it.
Identity Position
The view that mental processes are the same thing as certain kinds of brain processes but are described in different terms.
Solipsism
I alone exist, or I alone am conscious.
Easy Problems
The easy problems pertain to many phenomena that we call CONSCIOUSNESS, such as the difference between wakefulness nad sleep and the mechanisms that enable us to focus our attention.
Hard Problem
The hard problem concerns why and how any kind of brain activity is associated with consciousness.
Binocular Activity
Shifts in vision that are slow and gradual, sweeping from one side to another.
Genes
Genes are units of heredity that maintain their structural identity from one generation to another.
Chromosomes
Chromosomes are strands of genes, which also come in pairs.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
A gene is a portion of a chromosome, which is composed of the double-stranded molecule deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
Ribonucleic Acid
A strand of DNA serves as a template (model) for the synthesis of ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules. RNA is a single strand chemical: one type of RNA molecule serves as a template for the synthesis of protein molecules.
Enzymes
Some proteins form part of the structure of the body; other serve as enzymes: biological catalysts that regulate chemical reactions in the body.
Homozygous
Anyone with an identical pair of genes on the two chromosomes is homozygous for that gene.
Heterozygous
An individual with an unmatched pair of genes is heterozygous for that gene.
Dominant Gene
A dominant gene shows a strong effect in either the homozygous or heterozygous condition.
Recessive Gene
A recessive gene shows its effects only in the homozygous condition.
Crossing Over
A pair of chromosomes may break apart during reproduction and reconnect such that part of one chromosome attaches to the other part of the second chromosome.
Sex-Linked Genes
The genes located on the sex chromosomes.
Autosomal Genes
Genes not located on the sex chromosomes.
X and Y
A female mammal has two X chromosomes; a male has an X and Y.
Sex Limited Genes
Distinct from sex-linked genes are the sex-limited genes, which are present in both sexes but have effects mainly or exclusively for one sex.
Recombination
A new combination of genes, some from one parent and some from the other, that yields characteristics not found in either parent.
Mutation
A change in a single gene.
Monozygotic
From one egg.
Dizygotic
From two eggs.
Heritability
If the variations in some characteristic depend largely on hereditary influences, the characteristic has high heritability.
Multiplier Effect
If genetic or prenatal influences produce even a small increase in some activity, the early tendency will change hte environment in a way that magnifies that tendency.
Phenylketonuria or PKU
A genetic inability to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine.
Evolution
A change over generations in the frequencies of various genes in a population.
Artificial Selection
Choosing an individual with a desired trait and making them the parents of the next generation.
Lamarckian Evolution
Jean Lamarck's theory of evolution through the inheritance of acquired characteristics.
Fitness of __
The number of copies of one's enes that endure in later generations.
Evolutionary Psychology or Sociobiology
Evolutionary Psychology or Sociobiology deals with how behaviors have evolved, especially social behaviors.
Altruistic Behavior
An action that benefits someone other than the actor.
Reciprocal Altruism
The idea that animals help those who help them in return.
Kin Selection
Selection for a gnee because it benefits the individual's relatives.