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103 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the big five traits?
Openness, conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, neuroticism
three parts of the mind
conscious, preconscious, unconscious
conscious
immediate awareness for current events
preconscious
available to awareness (phone numbers)
unconscious
unavailable to awareness (infantile memories, repressed wishes, conflicts)
three interacting personality structures
id, superego, ego
id
releases energy according to pleasure priciple, present at birth, innermost core of personality, exists within unconscious
superego
moral arm of personality, strives to control the id's instincts
ego
direct contact with reality, on the conscious level, operates according to the reality principle
5 stages of psychosexual development
Oral, anal, phallic, latent, genital
oral stage of psychosexual development
during infancy, get satisfaction from eating and sucking, fixation leads to independency
anal stage of psychosexual development
pleasure focused on elimination of body wastes, ages 2-3, fixation leads to a negative, dominant adult
phallic stage of psychosexual development
ages 4-5, pleasure derived from sexual organs, identification with same-sex parent
latent stage of psychosexual development
sexually dormant
genital stage of psychosexual development
erotic impusles expressed in sexual relationships
defense mechanisms
Unconscious mental operations that deny or distort reality,
Used to reduce anxiety levels
repression defense mechanism
Anxiety-arousing memories, feelings, impulses prevented from entering consciousness
denial defense mechanism
Refusal to acknowledge an event or the emotions connected to it
displacement defense mechanism
Impulses are first repressed, then shifted (displaced) on to a more acceptable target
intellectualization defense mechanism
removing the emotional component of a situation and deal with it as an intellectually interesting event
projection defense mechanism
People disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
rationalization defense mechanism
A false excuse to explain an anxiety arousing behavior that has already occurred
reaction formation defense mechanism
Unconsciously switch impulses into their opposites
sublimation
Taboo impulses channeled into socially desirable and admirable behaviors
psychoanalysis
FREUD, goal-help patients achieve conscious awareness of underlying problems
free association
Verbal reports of thoughts, feelings, or images that enter awareness without censorship
transference
Occurs when client responds irrationally to therapist like he or she was important figure from client’s past,
Brings out repressed feelings and maladaptive behaviors
POS-Transfer feelings of affection, dependency, love
NEG-Transfer irrational expressions of anger, hatred, disappointment
resistance
Defensive maneuvers that hinder the process of therapy,
Sign that anxiety-arousing material is being approached
what are traits
Stable cognitive, emotional, and behavioral characteristics
Factors that help establish individual identities
Summaries of attributes
Internal causes of behaviors
self monitors
high:Attentive to situational cues, Adapt behavior to what is most situationally appropriate
eyesenck
Two dimensions of personality:
Introversion-extraversion
Stability-instability
Humanistic Approach
rogers & maslow,
self: Organized, consistent set of perceptions about oneself
self-consistency: Absence of conflict among self-perceptions
congruence: Consistency between self-perceptions and experiences
Rogers:
Unconditional positive regard
Conditional positive regard
Unconditional Positive Regard
Child is inherently worthy of love, regardless of behavior

Conditional Positive Regard
Dependent on how child behaves
self-esteem
Sense of personal well-being, happiness, and adjustment
Fairly stable over lifespan
No sex differences
Related to positive behaviors and life outcomes
Julian Rotter
Expectancy concerning the degree of personal control we have in our lives
internal locus of control
Life outcomes are under personal control and depend on one’s behavior
(Behave in a more self-determined fashion
Achieve better grades
More resistant to social influence
Engage in more health-promoting behaviors; less depression, anxiety)
external locus of control
Luck, chance, powerful others affect fate
Self-Efficacy (Bandura, 1997)
Beliefs concerning ability to perform behavior to achieve desired outcomes
(Previous performance experiences
Observational learning
Verbal persuasion
High emotional arousal interpreted as anxiety or fatigue)
Abnormal Behavior-3 D's
Distress, Dysfunction, Deviance
-Behavior that is so:
Personally distressful
Personally dysfunctional
Culturally deviant
that others judge it as inappropriate or maladaptive
Distress
Judgments of abnormality most likely when distress is disproportionately acute or long-lasting
Dysfunctionality
either for individual or society
Deviance
from cultural norms
DSM-IV
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition
Most widely used classification system in U.S.
DSM-IV Axes
Axis I: Primary clinical symptoms
Axis II: Long-standing personality or developmental disorders
Axis III: Relevant physical conditions
Axis IV: Intensity of environmental stressors
Axis V: Coping resources as reflected in recent adaptive functioning
Anxiety Disorders
Frequency and intensity of anxiety responses are out of proportion to the situations that trigger them
Anxiety interferes with daily life
-Components of Anxiety Responses

Subjective-emotional-tension
Cognitive- worry
Physiological- increased heart rate
Behavioral- avoidance of feared situations
generalized Anxiety Disorders
Chronic state of diffuse, “free-floating” anxiety
Anxiety not attached to specific objects or situations
Panic Disorder
Panic occurs suddenly and unpredictably
Much more intense than typical anxiety
Agorophobia
Fear of open and public spaces from which escape would be difficult
Social phobias
Fear of situations in which evaluation might occur
Phobias
Strong and irrational fears of certain objects or situations
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Obsessions
Repetitive and unwelcome thoughts, images, or impulses
Compulsions
Repetitive behavioral responses
Cleaning
Checking
Counting
Hoarding
Posttraumatic stress Disorder
Severe anxiety disorder
Can occur in people exposed to extreme trauma
Symptoms of PTSD
Severe symptoms of anxiety, arousal, and distress
Reliving of trauma in flashbacks
Numb to world and avoidance of reminders
Intense “survivor guilt”
Biological Factors in Anxiety
Overreactive autonomic nervous system
Overreactive neurotransmitter systems involved in emotional responses
Overreactive right hemisphere sites involved in emotions
Cognitive Factors
Maladaptive thought patterns and beliefs
Exaggerated misinterpretations of stimuli
Somatoform Disorders
Involve physical complaints that suggest a medical problem
But no biological cause
Hypochondriasis
Great alarm about physical symptoms
Convinced of serious illness
Conversion Disorder
Serious neurological disorders suddenly occur
e.g., paralysis, loss of sensation, blindness
Malingering
fabricating or exagerrating symptoms
Munchhausen's Syndrome
fake disease, illness or psychological trauma in order to draw attention or sympathy to themselves
Dissociative Disorders
Breakdown of normal personality integration
Results in alterations to memory or identity
Psychogenic Amnesia
Response to stressful event with extensive but selective memory loss
-temporary
Psychogenic Fugue
Loss of all sense of personal identity
Establishment of new identity in a new location
Anne Heche- gf of Ellen degeneres found 118 miles away answering to the name celestia
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
Formerly called multiple personality disorder
Two or more separate personalities coexist in the same person
causes: Trauma-Dissociation Theory
Development of personalities is a response to severe stress
Mood Disorders
Involve depression and mania
Most frequently experienced (with anxiety disorders) psychological disorders
Major depression
Intense depressed state
Leaves people unable to function effectively in their lives
Dysthymia
Intense form of depression
Less dramatic effects on personal and occupational functioning
More chronic than major depression
Symptoms of Depression
Negative mood
Cognitive symptoms
Motivational symptoms
Somatic (physical) symptoms
Cognitive Symptoms of Depression
Difficulty concentrating and making decisions
Low self-esteem
Feelings of inferiority
Blame selves for failures
Pessimism and hopelessness
Motivational symptoms of Depression
Inability to get started on task
Inability to perform behaviors leading to pleasure or accomplishment
Somatic (Bodily) Symptoms of Depression
Loss of appetite and weight loss in moderate and severe depression
Weight gain in mild depression
Bipolar Disorder
Depression alternates with periods of mania
Mania = Highly excited mood and behavior
Genetic Factors of Mood Disorders
67% concordance rate for identical twins; only 15% for fraternal twins (Gershon et al., 1989)
Genetic predisposition to mood disorder
Brain Chemistry Factors of Mood Disorders
Underactivity of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin in depression (Davidson, 1998)
Overactivity of neurotransmitters in mania?
Psychological Factors of Mood disorders
Early traumatic losses or rejections create vulnerability (e.g. Abraham, 1911; Freud, 1917, Brown and Harris, 1978)
Humanistic Factors of Mood disorders
Definition of self-worth in terms of individual attainment
React more strongly to failures; view failures as due to inadequacies
Experience of meaninglessness
Environmental Factors of Mood disorders
Poor parenting
Many stressful experiences
Failure to develop good coping skills
Failure to develop positive self-concept
Sociocultural Factors of Mood Disorders
Prevalence of depressive disorders less in Hong Kong and Taiwan than in the West
Feelings of guilt and inadequacy are highest in North America and Western Europe
Diagnosis of Schizophrenia
Misinterpretation of reality
Disordered attention, thought, perception
Withdrawal from social activities
Strange or inappropriate communication
Neglect of personal grooming
Disorganized behavior
Delusions
False beliefs that are sustained in the face of contrary evidence normally sufficient to destroy them
Hallucinations
False perceptions that have a compelling sense of reality
Can be auditory or visual
Positive Symptoms
Bizarre behaviors such as delusions, hallucinations, and disordered speech, thinking
Negative Symptoms
Absence of normal reactions
e.g., emotional expression, motivation, normal speech
Subtypes of Schizophrenia
Paranoid, Disorganized, Catatonic, and Undifferentiated
Paranoid
Delusions of persecution and grandeur
Disorganized
Confusion and incoherence
Severe deterioration of adaptive behavior
Catatonic
Motor disturbances from muscular rigidity to random or repetitive movements
Undifferentiated
Do not show enough specific criteria to be classified as paranoid, disorganized, or catatonic
Personality Disorder
Enduring pattern of experience and behavior that differs greatly from expectations of a person’s culture
Disorder is usually manifested in more than one of following areas: Thoughts, feelings, how a person gets along with others, and the ability to control own behavior
Pattern of behavior is rigid and displayed across a variety of situations, leading to distress in key areas of life such as work and relationships
Pattern of behavior typically has a long history in a person’s life, often back to adolescence or childhood
Histrionic Personality Disorder
Excessive attention seeking
Excessive and strong emotions
Sexually provocative
Opinions are shallow
Suggestible
Strong need for attention
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Need to be admired
Strong sense of self importance
Lack of insight into other peoples’
feelings or needs
Sense of entitlement
Feelings of superiority
Self-esteem appears strong, but is fragile
Envious of others
Borderline Personality Disorder
Instability of relationships,
emotions, and self-image
Fears of abandonment
Aggressive
Prone to self-harm
Strong emotions
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Psychopaths or sociopaths
3:1 male-female ratio
Lack a conscience
Fail to respond to punishment
Psychological Causes of Antisocial Personality Disorder
Psychodynamic view: lack of a superego
Inability to develop conditioned fear responses when punished leads to poor impulse control
Modeling of aggression
Parental inattention to children’s needs (Rutter, 1997)
negative state relief model
ppl help others in order to counteract their own feelings of sadness
bystander effect
presence of others inhibits of helping
pluralistic ignorance
the state in which ppl mistakenly believe that their own feelings are different from those of others, even when everyone's behavior in the same
diffusion of responsibility
belief that others will or should take the responsibility for providing assistance to a person in need
audience inhibition
reluctance to help for fear of making a bad impression on observers (ppl feel embarrased in a social setting)
good mood effect
effect whereby a good mood increases behavior
social norm
general rule of conduct reflecting standards of social approval and disapproval (standards of approved or disapproved behavior)
norm of social responsibility
moral standard emphasizing that people should help those who need assistance
threat-to-self-esteem model
theory that reactions to receiving assistance depend on whether help is perceived as supportive or threatening (receiving help is self supportive,-they feel appreciated and cared for, but self-threatened when teh recipeint feels inferior and overly dependent