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13 Cards in this Set

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physiological status as male or female

the psychological and sociocultural definition of masulinity or femininity, based on the expected behaviors for males and females
sex vs. gender
In the early weeks of prenatal development, the gonads, or sex glands, of the male and female fetus are identical. During the 7th week of prenatal development, a single gene is found only on the y chromosome and known as Sry, sets in motion the forces that lead to the development of testes in male fetuses.
how xy embryos develope male sex characteristics
internal and external reproductive organs (genitalia)

physical characteristics that appear at puberty and are associated with sexual maturity but not directly involved in reproduction
primary vs. secondary sex characteristics
cross-cultural studies reveal that kohlberg's states of gender identity, gender stability, and gender constancy occur in the same order in different cultures.
cross-cultural studies of kohlberg's stages of gender identity
a theory suggesting that young children are motivated to attend to behave in ways consistent with gender-based standards and stereotypes of their culture
gender schema theory
women tend to prefer men who are somewhat older, more stable and with sufficient resources, generous, emotionally attached, and strong enough to provide protection for the family.
what females seek in mates according to evolutionary psychology
males tend to perform better than females on some spatial tasks.
gender differences in spatial ability
Most researchers that greater physical aggresion in males is one of the most consistent and significant gender differences.

Girls and women are more likely than their male peers to use indirect forms of aggression.
direct vs. indirect aggression (gender differences)
excitement: 1st stage - erection in males and a swelling of the clitoris and vaginal lubrication in females

plateau phase: 2nd stage - muscle tension and blood flow to the genitals increase in preparation for orgasm

orgasm: 3rd stage - sudden discharge of accumulated sexual tension and involuntary muscle contraction

resolution: 4th stage - body returns to n unaroused state
four phases of sexual response cycle
Research seems to suggest an association between a high incidence of sexual fantasies and a more satisfactory sex life and fewer sexual problems.
sexual fantasies & satisfaction with sex life
According to Masters & Johnson, a couples "total commitment, in which all sense of obligation is linked to mutual feelings of loving concern, sustains a couple sexually over the years"
the best or most satisfying sex according to masters & johnson
-"nature" explanations - genetics, androgens, hypothalamus, age of onset
current theories of the origins of homosexuality
homosexuality is a disorder only if the individuals thinks that there is a problem
American Psychological Association's view of homosexuality.