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137 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Mneumonist "Autobiographical"
*says she can feel the memory
Have a problem functioning in everyday life
3 Fundamental Types of Learning
1. Encoding
2. Storage
3. Retrieval
Organizing & Transforming incoming info so that it can be entered into memory to be stored or compared w/ previously stored info
Process of retaining info in memory
Process of accessing info stored in memory
3 Memory Stores
1. Sensory
2. Short Term
3. Long Term
Each memory system has a:
Duration & Capacity
How long memories last
How much info can be stored
*Very Short (less thatn 1 sec)
Sensory Memory
Holds seperate visual images so you can see the continous loop
*Example: Glow Stick
Iconic Memory
Made a memory test for sensory memory (1960)
*Letters flashed quickly
*Write down all letters
George Sperling
Has a large capactiy & short duration
Sensory Memory
Auditory form of sensory memory
*Continue to hear sound after finishes
Echoic Memory
*Short duration (30 secs)
*Small capacity (7 +/- 2 items)
Short-Term Memory
*Useful for remembering telephone numbers
*Language use
*Getting info to long-term memory
Short-Term Memory
How to increase capacity of Short-Term Memory
How to increase duration of Short-Term Memory
Stores info that underlies the meaning of pics, words & objects, as well as your memories of everything you have done.
Long Term Memory
3 Parts of Long Term Memory
*Diff Sensory Modalites
*Verbal Info
*Motor Memories
This memory's storage capacity is so large that some researchers have questioned whether it has a limit.
Long Term Memory
*Showed 600 photos then tested recognition.
*99% right after 2 hrs.
*87% after a week.
Shepard (1967)
If its not in ________ then its lost forever
Long Term Memory
You can't retrive info from this memory
Short-Term Memory
Experiments with STM & LTM, proved they were distinct, & operate differently
Ebbinghau's (1885)
Conscious awareness, easy to verbalize. Includes Semantic and episodic.
Explicit Memory
conscious awareness, hard to verbalize. Includes skill or habits
Implicit memory
word meanings (a dog is an animal), concepts (heat rises)
events that occurred to you (buying a dog), include context(when,where)
3 Implicit memories
1. Classical conditioned responses
2. Habit
3. Priming
well learned response that is carried out automatically
The result of having just performed a task that facilitates repeating the same or associated task
Implicit Memory
Memory includes a central executive that operates on information in one of the STM’s to plan, reason and problem solve.
Working Memory
Called the Articulatory loop. Is like a tape recorder, sound fades when not being played. Rehearsal is important
Verbal STM
like an ink pad that you stamp briefly retains mental images
Visuospatial Sketchpad
Information moves through each memory store
can be stored in different formats based on anticipated use
*Is the strengthening of memories
*Results from frequent or long term use
*New memories are dynamic
*Memories are structural
*Explicit memories occurs in the hippocampus (HM no new memories, but could recall events 11 years before operation)
*Is a type of mental representation, or internal re-representation of a stimulus or event
*Memories can be stored in different formats
based on anticipated use
Based on sensory characteristics
Based on meaning
Leads to better memory
Complex Processing
Plays a key role in what is encoded in memory
What you pay attention to
Repeating info
Simple Encoding
Creating connections to existing knowledge
Elaborative Encoding
Leads to better memory (how well you integrate and organize the material)
Elaborative Encoding
Consolidation of explicit memories occurs in the _____ (HM no new memories, but could recall events 11 years before operation)
Emotionally charged, episodic memories
*Sept. 11, Kennedy assassination, birth of sibling
*Very vivid and accurate
*High level of confidence
*But accuracy does decrease over time
Flashbulb Memories
The Capital of Spain
To explode a bomb
See through
Tip of the Tongue
Is a constructive process
*Not like a DVD
*Biases and expectations can influence memory
Memories of events that didn’t occur
False Memories
Intentionally bringing LTM into STM
*Who was Carter’s vice president?
*Essay tests demand recall
Matching input to a stored memory
*Was Mondale Carters vice president?
*Multiple choice tests demand recognition
Typically harder
*The ability to solve problems well and to understand and learn complex material
*Key aspect is the ability to adapt to the environment
*Associated with mental quickness
*Score on an intelligence test
*Meaning has changed over time
IQ: Intelligence Quotient
*Developed first intelligence test
*Identify students who need extra help
*Test many children at each age
*Compare individuals to "normal" scores
*Mental Age
*Chronological Age
(1904-1911) Alfred Binet & Theodore Simon
*American Version of Binet-Simon Test
*Stanford-Binet test for age 2 to adult
Lewis Terman (Stanford University)
*Wechsler Ault Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
*Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)
*Performance & Verbal Subtests
David Wechsler
Calculating IQ
Willian Stern, German Psychologist

IQ = Mental Age/Chron Age x 100
Compare individual to standardized sample
Modern Approach
A good test must be what
Valid & Reliable
Test produces consistent results
*Test measures what it is supposed to
*Do IQ test really measure intelligence, or do they measure the ability to solve problems well & learn complex material
High IQ tends to be related to_____
*Crystalized intelligence
*Fluid intelligence
Raymond Cattell
Reasoning/Problem Solve
Fluid Intelligence
*Crystallized intelligence doesn't matter
*Fluid intelligence tends to decrease
8 or 9 forms of intelligence
Howard Gardner
3 Forms of Intelligence
Robert Sternberg
Learn & Write & dot math
Analytic Intelligence
Knowing how to fix things, street smarts
practical intelligence
Novel solutions to problems
Creative Intelligence
*Some overlap w/ pratical intelligence
*Knowing your emotions
*Managing your feelings
*Recognizing other's emotions
*Handling relationships
*Women tend to have higher EIQ than Men
Emotional Intelligence
*Avg. IQ increases 3 pts. every 10 yrs
*IQ tests are periodically re-normed
*Effect may be increasing
*IQ increases, G accounts for less variability
*Strong effect on tests free of cultural bias
The Flynn Effect
Head Start & Similar Projects
*Most show only short-term IQ gains
*Most gains evaporate over time
Educational Programs & IQ
*Intellectual, Medical , and nutritional enrichment
*5 yrs before kindergarten
*Long-term 5 point IQ boost
Abecedarian Project
Are correlated w/ speed of info processing
High IQ's
Is corelated w/ working memory
*IQ is less than 70 or impairments in two aspects of everyday
*4-7 million Americans
Mental Retardation
Islands of Excellence
*Savants (Rainman)
*Williams Syndrome
Large Vocab & detailed knowledge of facts
Williams Sydrome
Extra chromosome during conception
Down Syndrome
Affects X chromosome, genetic & inherited
Fragile X Syndrome
Genetic Influences
*Down Syndrome
*Fragile X Syndrome
Environmental Influences
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Retardation caused by excessive drinking
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
*IQ of 150-180
*Childhood vs. Adulthood
The Gifted
Immense talent in particular domain
*A set of characterisitcs that are consistent across time & situations. They distinguish individuals from eachother.
Consistent characteristics exhibted across a range of situations
Personality Traits
The Big 5 Traits
Openness to Experience
The Three-Factor Theory of Personality (Hans)
Measuring Personality
Interviews & Observations
Structured set of questions (can be modified)
Focuses on behaviors, not thoughts
3 types of personality tests
1) 16 PF - Raymond Cattell
2) MM PI - 2
3) Neo Personality Inventory - R
Responses categorized into 16 personality factors
16 personality factors - Raymond Cattell
Is commonly used to assess psychopathology (567 questions T/F)
MM PI - 2
Assesses 30 personality traits along w/ 5 factor model
Neo Personality Inventory
A method used to assess personality & psychopathology that involves asking the test taker to make sense of ambiguous stimulus
Projective Test
Developed by Herman Rorschach (1884-1922) using 10 diff inblots
Thematic apperception test (TAT) was by whom?
Henry Murray (1930)
Used detailed black & white drawings, often with people in them, tell a story
(TAT) Thematic Apperception Test
If only I could...
I secretly wish...
The Rotter Sentence Completion Stems
*Innate tendacies to behanve in certain ways
*Determined by age 3
*Correlation between this at infancy and adulthood
*Example: Sensation Seeking
All behavior has psychological cause
Psychological Determinism
Normal Awareness
Conscious Mind (Ego)
Easily brought to consciousness
Preconscious Mind (Superego)
Hidden thoughts and desires
Unconscious Mind (Id)
*Present at birth
*Home to sexual & aggressive drive
*Governed by the pleasure principle
*Think Homer Simpson
The Id
*Develops in childhood
*Home to morality & conscience (right/wrong)
*Internalize values of parents & society, as child, always remains childlike in nature.
*Governed by the ego ideal
*Tries to prevent expression of Id's sexual & aggressive impulses
*Think Ned Flanders
The Superego
*Develops in childhood (b4 Superego)
*Acts as ref between Id & Superego
*Governed by the reality principle - what is realistically possible in the world
*Helps solve problems
The Ego
*Proposed 5 stages of development
*We must pass through psychosexual stages
-Each stage focuses on how we recieve pleasure
*Failure to pass through stage = Fixation
Freud: Personality Development
Birth to 1.5 years
Oral Stage
Constintaly put things in mouth
Oral Reception
Bitters & Chewers
Oral Aggression
1.5 to 3 yrs
Anal Stage
Anal Retentive
Distructive, Emotional Outburst
Anal Expulsive
3 to 6 yrs (boys differ from girls)
Phallic Stage
Boys - Love mother - Kill father
Oedipus Complex
Girls - Love father - Kill mother
Electra Compley
6 to Puberty
Latency Period
Puberty Onward
Gential Stage
Unconscious attempts to silence the Id
Freud: Defense Mechanisms
Deny bad thoughts
Emotions are rationalized
Put thoughts onto someone else
Do the opposite
Reaction Formation
Anxiety inducing thoughts (forget)
Make sociably acceptable