Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

121 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Ivan Pavlon
Noble Prize winner
Saliva in dogs
Unconditioned Association
Classical Conditioning
learning an associateion between a stimulus and response.
Based on inborn reflexes..things we automatically do
change in behavior or knowledge due to experience
Unconditioned association
association between stimulus and response that is natural
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
Uncondtioned Stimulus
UCS- evokes a response without previous conditioning
(Meat Powder)
Unconditioned Response
UCR- unlearned reaction to a stimulus (Drool)
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
CS- previously neutral stimulus paired with a Unconditioned Stimulus.
Neutral (Beep)
Conditioned Response (CR)
CR- Response that occurs in reaction to Conditioned Stimulus because of conditioning (Beep = Drool)
Stimulus Generalization
respond to new things that are similar to old (Little baby white rat= scared of white rabbits)
Stimulus Discrimination
Only train to respond to the Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
weaking of Conditional Response (CR)
CS is exposed without the UCS
Spontaneous Recovery
Get the Conditional Response after a long time. (War Vet)
John Watson
Little Albert (white rat with loud gong= fear of white things)
Stimulus Generalization
Higher-Order Condtitioning
Conditioned Stimulus functions as if it were the Unconditioned Stimulus (Beep = Red light = Drool)
B.F. Skinner
Operant Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
voluntary responses come to be controlled by consequences
event following a response increases, making it do the response again. (Rat get good shock when hitting buttons) (Study hard, get good grades) TREAT
Reinforcement Contingencies
Leads to presentation of reinforcers and more likely to repeat. (Reward for doing the right thing) TREAT
reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response (to get a dog to play dead, you must start at sit, lay, roll over, ect)
Resistance to Extinction
continue to make a response after the reinforcer is gone.
(If reinforcer is gone and it takes a long time to stop = high reisitance to extinction)
Discrimination stimuli
cues that influence the stimuli (Birds know that worms come out after rain)
Stimulus Generalization
Responding to related items (can opener and blender)
Stimulus Discrimination
Responds to specific things (Can opener)
Primary Reinforcers
Unlearned things such as food, water, sex.
Secondary Reinforcers
Things that need to be learned (good grades, attention, dvd players, sports)
Reinforcement Schedules
Paterm of reinforcers over time (Continuous and Intermittent)
Continuous Reinforcement
Simplest- Positive Reinforcement for every response. (Used to Shape)
Intermittent Reinforcement
Responses occur only sonme of the time. Makes response more resistant to extinction
4 Types of Intermittent Reinforcement
Fixed Ratio,
Variable Ratio,
Fixed Interval,
Variable Interval
Fixed Ratio
Reinforcment given after a fixed number (Buy 9, Get 1 Free)
Variable Ratio
Reinfrocement given after a unpredictable number (Slot Machine- Hardest to extingish)
Fixed Interval
Reinforcement given after the first response that occurs after a fixed time interval (Mail Man at 10 am Easiest to extingish)
Variable Interval
Reinforcement given after the first response that occurs after a unpredictable time (TV Shows Interupted)
Negative Reinforcement
Used to get rid of bad responses (Aspirin, Peeing)
Escape Learning
Run to the other room when it shocks
Avoidence Learning
Run to the other room when before you get shocked, when the light comes on.
Decreases the tendency of response (Shock, traffic ticket, hangovers)
Instinctual Drift
racoons could take 1 coin, but not 2
Albert Bandura
Observational Learning
Observational Learning
Learns through observing others
Three Main Types of Learning
Classical Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
Observational Learning
Forming a memory code (looks, sounds, feels)
maintianing encoded info in your memory
Revovering info from memory stores
focusing on a narrow range of events
Levels of Processing
Deeper levels of processing result in longer memory.
Structural Encoding
Focuses on the ohysical structure of stimulus (font and size of letters)
Phonemic Encoding
Sound of stimulus (Saying word to yourself)
Semantic Encoding
Focusing on the meaning of stimulus (Understanding Concept) BEST MEMORY
used to form both semantic and visual codes
Sensory Memory
Information in its original form for a second
Iconic Memory
Holds viual image 1/4 second (Light makes a circle)
Echoic Memory
Holds Auditory 1/4 second
Short Term Memory
limited capacity store that holds in for 20 seconds
Millers Magic Number
7 + or - things people can remember
combine things into a larger thing, increases short term memory (fbicia= FBI-CIA)
Long Term Memory
unlimited space that hold info over long periods
Procedural Memory
Actions, Skills, and Operations (Ride a bike, tie a shoe)
Declarative Memory
Facual information
Semantic Memory
General knowledge of something (dogs have 4 legs)
Episodic Memory
Dated recollections of personal experience (first dog, birthday)
Flash-Bulb Memories
remember big moments (9/11)
Seriel Position Effect
remember items at the beginning and ending of a list (Primacy and Recency)
Primacy Effect
items at beginining of list are recalled better b/c of rehearsal
Recency Effect
Items at the end of a list, info just left the short term memory
Semantic Network
pathways that link related concepts
knowledge about something from previous experience (what a professor looks like)
Stimuli help us gain access to our memories
Context Cues
Putting yourself somewhere so you can remember (WHERE DID I PUT THOSE KEYS, retrace footsteps)
Put yourself in the mood to remember things
State Dependent Memory
info learned in one state is best retrieved in the same state
Tip of the Toungue Phenom
Inability to remember something you know
Source Monitoring Error
Remember info from a long time ago. (oprah)
Recall, Recognition, and Relearning
Remember the 25 words you remembered
Remember the 25 words, while getting a look at a 100 word sheet
takes less time to remember something
Why do we forget
Ineffective Encoding
Ineffective Encoding
encoding information at too low of a level.
Forgetting Curve- DECAY
Memory traces fade with time (Ebbinghaus)
competition from other materials (Retroactive & Proactive)
Retroactive Interference
New info pushes out memory of old info (Studying)
Proactive Interference
Old info takes over new (old girlfriend's name)
keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in unconcious
Extensive memory loss
(Retrograde & Anterograde)
Loss of memory for events that occured prior to injury (car accident)
Loss of memory for events that occur after the injury (difficult to form new memories)
Mnemonic Devices
Devices that assist memory
(Acrony & Acrostics)
First letter of each name (great lakes = HOMES)
Phrases with first letter in each word (Roger Yawned Alot Nicer)
Development of Moral Reasoning (3 Levels)
Development of Moral Reasonings (3 Levels)
Preconventional Morality
Conventional Morality
Postconventional Morality
Problem is its bias for whites
Preconventional Morality
Morality of Self Interests (avoid punishments)
Conventional Morality
Morality of law & social convention (using societies rules)
Postconventional Morality
Morality of abstract principals (moral thinking)
Which stage would women be?
Carol Gilligan
Selfish Orientation
Selfless Orientation
Balanced Orientation
Three stages of the Prenatal Period
Germinal (first 2 weeks)
Embryonic (2 weeks to 2 months)
Fetal (2 months to birth)
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Syntoms
Heart Defects, Irritability, Hyper, Retarded
Cephalocaudal Trend
Head to Foot direction of gaining control
Proximodistal Trend
Center to Outward- gain control
Inborn personality characteristics
Thomas and Chase Findings about Temperment
Could tell by 2-3 months old whether kid was EASY, Slow to Warm Up, or DIFFICULT
Jean Piaget
Cognitive Development
Cognitive Development (4 Stages)
Sensory Motor (0-2)
Pre-Operational (2-6)
Concrete Operations (7-11)
Formal Operations (12-Up)
Sensory Motor
0-2 Object Permanence "Out of Sight, Out of Mind"
Pre- Operational
2-6 Egocentric- Unable to see things from another view
Conservation- sandwich in 4 pieces is bigger?
Irreversibility- Cant undo a mental action
Animism- Belief that all things are living
Concrete Operations
7-11 Can think logically, but there is no abstract reasonings
Formal Operations
12- Up Able to understand people can think.
Cupboard theory of Attachment
infants become attached to caregiver

Feeding (UCS) Caregiver (US) = feeling good (CR)
Harry Harlowe
Worked with Rhesus Monkeys to test the Cupboard theory
Monkeys with Cupboard theory
Contact Comfort-pleasant contact is crucial for attachment
Mary Ainsworth
Studied infants attachment on mothers by putting child in room with mother, then stranger ect.
Ainsworth 3 major attachments
Securely Attached (playful sociable)
Avoident (lonely)
Anxious (insecure and clingy)
Cultural Attachment
Germany is bad
Japan is good
Erik Erikson 8 stage theory
Trust vs mistrust
Autonomy vs shame
Initiative vs guilt
Industry vs Inferiority
Identity vs confusion
Intimacy vs isolation
Generativity vs self-abosrption
Integrity vs despair
*PAGE 303*
Identity Diffusion
struggle for identity
Identity Foreclosure
unquestioning adoption of parental values
Identity Moratorium
Active struggling for a sense of identity)
Identity Achievement
Successful achievement of a sense of identity
impairs memory