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294 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
behavioral measures
Overt actions and reactions that are observed and recorded, exclusive of self-reported behaviour.
between-subjects design
A research design in which different groups of participants are randomly assigned to experimental condition or to control conditions.
case study
Intensive observation of a particular individual or small group of individuals.
confounding variable
A stimulus other than the variable an experimenter explicitly introduces into a research setting that affects a participant's behavior.
correlation coefficient (r)
A statistic that indicates the degree of relationship between two variables.
debriefing
A procedure conducted at the end of an experiment in which the researcher provides the participant with as much information about the study as possible and makes sure that no participant leaves feeling confused, upset or embarrassed.
dependant variable
In an experimental setting, a variable that the researchers measures to assess the impact of a variation in an independant variable.
determinism
The doctrine that all events - physical, behavioral, and mental - are determined by specfic causal factors that are potentially knowable.
double-blind control
An experimental technique in which biased expectations of experimenters are eliminated by keeping both participants and experimental assistants unaware of which participants have received which treatment.
expectancy effects
Results that occur when a researcher or observer, subtly communicates to participants the kind of behavior he or she expects to find, thereby creating that expected reaction.
experimental methods
Research methodologies that involve the manipulation of independent variables in order to determine their effects on the dependent variables
hypothesis
1
independant variable
In an experimental setting, a variable that the researcher manipulates with the expectation of having an impact on values of the dependent variable.
observer bias
The distortion of evidence because of the personal motives and expectations of the viewer.
operational definition
A definition of a variable or condition in terms of the specific operation or procedure used to determine its presence.
placebo control
An experimental condition in which treatment is not administered: it is used in cases where a placebo effect might occur.
placebo effect
A change in behavior in the absence of an experimental manipulation.
population
The entire set of individuals to which generalizations will be made based on experimental sample.
reliability
The degree to which a test produces similar scores each time it is used: stability or consistency of the scores produced by an instrument.
representative sample
A subset of a population that closely matches the overall characteristics of the population with respect to the distribution of males and females, racial and ethnic groups, and so on.
sample
A subset of a population selected as participants in an experiment.
scientific method
A set of procedures used for gathering and interpreting objective information in a way that minimizes error and yields dependable generalizations.
self-report measures
The self behaviors that are identified through a participant's own observations and reports.
theory
And organized set of concepts that explains the phenomenon and a set of phenomena.
validity
The extent to which a test measures what it was intended to measure.
variable
In an experimental setting, a factor that varies in amount and kind.
within-subjects design
A research design that uses each participant as his or her own control; for example, the behavior of an experimental participant before receiving treatment might be compared to his or her behavior after receiving treatment.
behavior
The actions by which an organism adjusts to its environment.
behavioral data
Observational reports about the behavior of organisms and the conditions under which the behavior occurs or changes.
behavioral neuroscience
A multidisciplinary field that attempts to understand the brain processes that underline behavior
behaviorism
A scientific approach that limits the study of psychology to measurable or observable behavior.
behaviorist perspective
The psychological perspective primarily concerned with observable behavior that can be objectively recorded and with the relationships of observable behavior to environmental stimuli.
biological prespective
The approach to identifying causes of behavior that focuses on the functioning of the genes, the brain, the nervous system, and the endocrine system.
cognitive neuroscience
A multidisciplinary field that attempts to understand the brain processes that underlie higher cognitive functions in humans.
cognitive perspective
The perspective on psychology that stresses human thought and the processes of knowing, such as attending, thinking, remembering, expecting, solving problems, fantasizing and consciousness.
evelutionary perpective
The approach to psychology that stresses the importance of behavioral and mental adaptiveness, based on the assumption that mental capabilities you balked over millions of years to serve particular adaptive purposes.
functionalism
The perspective on mind and behavior that focuses on the examination of their functions in an organism's interaction with the environment.
humanistic perspective
A psychological model that emphasizes an individuals phenomenal world and inherent capacity for making rational choices and developing to maximize potential.
Psychodynamic perspective
A psychological model in which behavior is explained in terms of past experiences and motivational forces; actions are viewed as stemming from an inherited instincts, biological drives, and attempts to resolve conflicts between personal needs and social requirements.
psychology
The scientific study of the behavior of individuals and their mental processes.
scientific method
The set of procedures used for gathering and interpreting objective information in a way that minimizes error and yields dependable generalizations.
sociocultural perspective
The psychological perspective that focuses on cross-cultural differences in the causes and consequences of behavior.
structuralism
The study of the structure of mind and behavior; the view that all human mental experience can be understood as a combination of simple elements or events.
descriptive statistics
1
frequency distribution
1
inferential statistics
1
mean
1
measure of central tendency
1
measures of variablity
1
median
1
mode
1
normal curve
1
range
1
significant difference
1
standard deviation
1
action potential
The nerve impulse activated in a neuron that travels down the axon and causes Nero transmitters to be released into the synapse.
all-or-none law
The rule that the size of the action potential is unaffected by increases in the intensity of stimulation beyond the threshold level.
amygdala
The part of the limbic system that control the motion, aggression, and the formation of emotional memory.
association cortex
The parts of the cerebral cortex in which many high-level brain processes occur.
auditory cortex
The area of the temporal lobes that receives and processes auditory information.
autonomic nervous systems (ANS)
The subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's involuntary motor responses by connecting the sensory receptors to the central nervous system [CNS] and the CNS to the smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands.
axon
Extended fiber of a near Ron through which nerve impulses travel from the soma to the terminal buttons.
brain stem
The brain structure that regulates the body's basic life processes.
Broca's area
The region of the brain that translates thoughts into speech or signs.
central nervous system (CNS)
The part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
cerebellum
The region of the brain attached to the brainstem that controls motor coordination, posture, and balance as well as the ability to learn control of body movements.
ceberal cortex
The outer surface of the cerebrum.
ceberal hemispheres
The two halves of the cerebrum, connected by the corpus callosum.
cerebrum
The region of the brain that regulates higher cognitive and emotional functions.
corpus callosum
The mass of nerve fibers connecting the two hemispheres of the cerebrum.
dendrites
The branched fibers of neurons that receive incoming signals.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
The physical basis for the transmission of genetic information.
electroencephalogram (EEG)
A recording of the electrical activity of the brain.
endocrine system
The network of glands that manufacture and secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
estrogen
The female sex hormone, produced by the ovaries, that is responsible for the release of eggs from the ovaries as well as the development and maintenance of female reproductive structures and secondary sex characteristics.
evolutionary psychology
The study of behavior and mine using the principles of evolutionary theory.
excitatory inputs
Information entering a neuron that signals it to fire.
frontal lobe
Region of the brain located above the lateral fissure and in front of the central sulcus; involved in motor control and cognitive activities.
functional MRI (fMRI)
A brain imaging technique that combines benefits of both and cat PET scans by detecting
genes
The biological units of heredity: discrete sections of chromosomes can responsible for transmission of traits.
genetics
The study of the inheritance of physical and psychological traits from ancestors.
genome
The genetic information for an organism, stored in the DNA of its chromosomes.
genotype
The genetic structure an organism inherits from its parents.
glia
The cells that holds neurons together and facilitate neutral transmission, remove damaged and dead neurons, and prevent poisonous substances in the blood from reaching the brain.
heredity
The biological transmission of traits from parents to offsprings.
heritability
The relative influence of genetics, versus environment, in determining patterns of behavior.
hippocampus
The part of the limbic system that is involved in the acquisition of explicit memory.
homeostasis
1
hormones
The chemical messengers, manufactured and secreted by the endocrine glands, that regulate metabolism and influence body growth, mood, and sexual characteristics.
human behavior genetics
The area of study that evaluates the genetic component of individual differences in behaviors and traits.
hypothalamus
The brain structure that regulates motivated behavior [such as eating and drinking] and homeostasis.
inhibitory inputs
1
interneurons
Brain near Ronstadt relay messages from sensory neurons to other interneurons or to motor neurons.
ion channels
The portions of nneurons' membranes that selectively permit certain iambs to flow in and out
lesions
1
limbic system
1
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
1
medulla
1
motor cortex
1
motor neurons
1
natural selection
1
neurogensis
1
neuromodulator
1
neuron
1
neuronscience
1
neurotransmitters
1
occipital lobe
1
parasympathrtic division
1
parietal lobe
1
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
1
PET scan
1
phenotype
1
pituitary gland
1
plasticity
1
pons
1
refractory period
1
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
1
resting potential
1
reticular formation
1
sensory neurons
1
sex chromosomes
1
sociobiology
1
soma
1
somatic nervous system
1
somatosensory cortex
1
sympathetic division
1
synapse
1
synaptic transmission
1
temporal lobe
1
terminal buttons
1
testosterone
1
thalamus
1
visual cortex
occi the region of the occipital loathed in which visual information is processed.
absolute threshold
1
accomodation
1
amacrine cells
1
ambiguity
1
attention
1
auditory cortex
1
auditory nerve
1
basilar membrane
1
bipolar cells
1
bottom-up processing
1
brightness
1
cochlea
1
complementary colors
1
cones
1
convergence
1
dark adaptation
1
dichotic listening
1
difference threshold
1
distal stimulus
1
figure
1
fovea
1
frequency theory
1
ganglion cells
1
gate-control theory
1
Gestalt psychology
1
goal-directed selection
1
ground
1
horizontal cells
1
hue
1
identification and recognition
1
illusion
1
just noticeable difference (JND)
1
kinesthetic sense
1
lightness constancy
1
loudness
1
olfactory bulb
1
opponent-process theory
1
optic nerve
1
pain
1
perception
1
perceptual constancy
1
perceptual organization
1
pheromones
1
phi phenomenon
1
photoreceptors
11
illusion
1
just noticeable difference (JND)
1
kinesthetic sense
1
lightness constancy
1
loudness
1
olfactory bulb
1
opponent-process theory
1
optic nerve
1
pain
1
perception
1
perceptual constancy
1
perceptual organization
1
pheromones
1
phi phenomenon
1
photoreceptors
11
absolute threshold
1
accomodation
1
amacrine cells
1
ambiguity
1
attention
1
auditory cortex
1
auditory nerve
1
basilar membrane
1
bipolar cells
1
bottom-up processing
1
brightness
1
cochlea
1
complementary colors
1
cones
1
convergence
1
cutaneous senses
1
dark adaptation
1
dichotic listening
1
difference threshold
1
distal stimulus
1
figure
1
fovea
1
frquency theory
1
ganglion cells
1
gate-control theory
1
Gestalt psychology
1
goal-directed selection
1
ground
1
horizontal cells
1
hue
1
identification and recognition
1
illusion
1
just noticeable difference (JND)
1
kinesthetic sense
1
lightness constancy
1
loudness
1
olactory bulb
1
opponent-process theory
1
optic nerve
1
pain
1
perception
1
perceptual constancy
1
perceptual organization
1
pheromones
1
phi phenomenon
1
photoreceptors
1
pitch
1
place theory
1
proximal stimulus
1
psychometric function
1
psychophysics
1
receptive field
1
relative motion parallax
1
response bias
1
retina
1
rentinal disparity
1
rods
1
saturation
1
senstation
1
sensory adaptation
1
sensory receptors
1
set
1
shape constancy
1
signal detection theory
1
size constancy
1
sound localization
1
stimulus-driven capture
1
timbre
1
top-down processing
1
transduction
1
trichromatic theory
1
vestibular sense
1
visual cortex
1
volley principle
1
Weber's law
1
addiction
1
circadian rhythm
1
consciousness
1
daytime sleepiness
1
dream work
1
experience-sampling method
11
hallucinations
1
hypnosis
1
hypnotizability
1
insomnia
1
latent content
1
lucid dreaming
1
manifest content
1
meditation
1
narcolepsy
1
nonconscious
1
non-REM (NREM) sleep
1
physiological dependence
1
preconscious memories
1
psychoactive drugs
1
psychological dependence
1
rapid eye movements (REM)
1
sleep apnea
1
somnambulism
1
think-aloud protocols
1
tolerance
1