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31 Cards in this Set

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What is the experimental method?
Researcher manipulates a variable; experiemental group and control group; random assignment; allows for cause and effect; ethical limitations; can't always generalize
What is a correlational experiment?
Using one variable to predict another; NOT cause and effect; use this when there are limitations; flexibility; NO causation
What is a descriptive study?
No hypothesis; just gathering data; if you need background information...factual survey
Define a neuron
A cell used to receieve and transmit information to the Central Nervous System
Soma
Cell body
Dendrites
branches, receieve information from neurons/sensory organs
Axon
signals sent to other neurons
Myelin Sheath
protects axon and transmission of signal; like insulation
Terminal buttons
nodule at the end of an axon that connects it to dendrites; connects neuron to neuron
Synapse
where terminal button intersects dendrite
Explain resting potential
Neurons have a semi-permeable membrane that allows different subtances to pass through (Sodium, Potassium, Chloride (-)) Chloride is trapped inside so the neuron has a neg charge; resting potential means charge inside is negative
Action potential
Rapid change in polarity of neuron; the membrane breaks down, letting more ions in; the gates open; ligand-gated channels open and allow sodium to come in...makes charge less negative; voltage gated channels open when charge changes...result: release of neurotransmitters
Excitatory effects
(1) block breakdown ability (2) block re-uptake
Inhibitory effects
(1) Block receptor sites (2) block release
Peripheral Nervous system
network of nerves that connect CNS to rest of the nervous system
Somatic nervous system
transmits nerves from sensor organis to CNS, nerves that connect CNS to voluntary muscles
Autonomic Nervous System
connects CNS to involuntary muscles and organs (heart and stomach); regulates internal states (HR); sympathetic - fight or flight, gears you up, increases HR...etc
Medulla
Part of the brainstem, keeps you alive - circulation, breathing, unconscious actions
Cerebellum
Keeps you upright, coordination of movement
Pons
Keeps you awake - sleep and arousal
Basal Ganglia
Production of voluntary movement (legs when walking); inhibition of unwanted movement
Thalamus
Limbic system; sensory relay, all info goes through Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Limbic system; controls autonomic nervous system (BP, HR, body temp, etc)
Hippocampus
Limbic system; Learning and memory; helps consolidate new memories and find old ones
Amygdala
Limbic system; recognizes dangerous situations and responding; inputs from thalamus; output to hypothalamus (HR rises); fight of flight
Cerebral Cortex
thinking part of the brain; producing conscious thought and emotion; feelings, memories, etc
Left vs. Right side of the brain
Left: processing language, verbal (controls right side of the body)
Right: visual, spatial
Occipital Lobe/Visual cortex
Back of the brain; processes vision
Parietal Lobe
information about touch
Temporal lobe and Wenicke's Area
Wernickes area - comprehension of language (if damaged, cannot create a real sentence, cannot read)
Frontal lobes
Motor cortextes - govern initiation of voluntary movement; Broca's area