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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Biological Psychology
The study of psychology in reference to the physical actions of the body.
a nerve cell, the basic building block of the nervous system
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron, ending in terminal fibers, through which messages conduct impulses toward the cell body
The extention of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons, muscles, or glands
myelin sheath
the layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons, which expedites the speed of neural impulses by hoping from one node to the next
action potential
a neural impulse, a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. The AP is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of the channels in the axon's membrane
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite of the receiving one. AKA synaptic gap or cleft
chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, NT travel across the synapse and bind to the receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate an impulse
acetylcholine (ACh)
a NT that among its functions, triggers muscle contraction
"morphine within" NT's related to pain control and pleasure
nervous system
the body's speedy electrochemical communication system, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
central nervous system (CNS)
the brain and spinal chord
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body
neural cables containing many axons. these bundled axons, which are PNS, connect the CNS with muscles, glands, and sense organs
sensory neurons
neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the CNS
CNS neurons that internally communicate between the sensory outputs and the motor outputs
motor nuerons
nuerons that carry outgoing information from the CNS to muscles and glands
somatic nervous
the division of the PNS that controls skeletal muscles "skeletal nervous system"
autonomic nervous system
the part of the PNS that controls glands and the muscles of the internal organs (heart). Sympathetic = Arousal and Parasympathetic = Calms
sympathetic nervous system
the division of the ANS that arouses the body, mobilizing it's energy on stressful situations
parasympathetic nervous system
the division of the ANS that calms the body, conserving energy
a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response
neural network
interconnected neural cells. With experience, networks can learn, as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain resutls. Computer stimulations of neural networks show analogous learning
tissue destruction, A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue
electroencephalogram (EEG)
an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp
CT (computer tomography) scan
a series of x-rays taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body. CAT scan
PET (positron emission tomography) scan
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a specific task
MRI (magnetic resonance imagining)
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue. Allows for the observation of structures in the brain
the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal chord swells as it enters the skull, the stem is responsible for automatic survival functions
the base of the brainstem, controlling heartbeat and breathing
reticular formation
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on the top of the brainstem. it directs the messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem, and helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance
limbic system
a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and the cerebral hemispheres. Associated with emotions and contains the hippocampus, amygdala, and the hypothalamus
two almond shaped neural clusters that are the components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion (fear and agression)
a neural structure lying below the thalamus. it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temp), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland and is linked to emotion
cerebral cortex
the intricate fabric of the interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres. It is the body's ultimate information processing center
glial cells
cells in the nervous system that support, nourish and protect the neurons
frontal lobes
the portion of the CC that lies just behind the forehead. Involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments
parietal lobe
the portion of the CC that lies on the top of the head and toward the rear. Includes the sensory cortex
occipital lobe
the portion of the CC lying in the back of the head, that includes the visual areas that receive visual information from the opposite visual field
temporal lobe
the portion of the CC lying roughly above the ears. Includes auditory area that receive auditory information from the opposite ear
motor cortex
the area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
sensory cortex
the area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body sensations
association areas
areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in the primary motor functions. Rather, they are involved in higher metal functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking
impairment of language usually cause by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (speaking or to Wernikie's area (comprehension)
Broca's area
controls language expression - an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
Wernikie's area
controls language reception - a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression, usually in the left temporal lobe
corpus callosum
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
split brain
a condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the corpus callosum
endocrine system
the body's "slow" chemical communication system composed of a set of glands that secrete hormones onto the blood stream
chemical messenger, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another
adrenal glands
a pair of endocrine glandsjust above the kidneys. the adrenals secrete the hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline which help to arouse the body in times of stress
pituitary gland
the endocrine system's most influential gland. under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls all the endocrine glands