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109 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Present in the spinal cord and brain
Peripheral Nervous System
Plays a central role in coordinating and integrating all bodily functions
Central Nervous System
Consists of the somatic and autonomic nervous systems
Peripheral Nervous System
Activated in emergency situations and causes heart rate and breathing to increase
Sympathetic Nervous System
Counteracts the responses of the SNS
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Relays or sends messages from the body to the spinal cord and brain
Sensory Neuron
Relays or sends messages from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
Motor Neuron
Electrical state that occurs in an all-or-none matter
action potential
Sends the action potential toward other neurons
axon
Controls the metabolic functions of the neuron
cell body
Receives information from other neurons
dendrites
Occurs when positive charged ions enter the postsynaptic membrane
EPSPs
Vary in relation to the intensity of stimulation and distance from the point of stimulation
graded potentials
Occurs when negative charged ions enter or positive charged ions exit the postsynaptic membrane
IPSPs
Composed of insulating glia cells
myelin sheath
Chemicals that move between two neurons
neurotransmitter
Exposed or uninsulated areas of the axon
node of Ranvier
Polarized electrical state of a neuron when it is not receiving information or impulses from other neurons
resting potential
Release neurotransmitter
terminal buttons
Relates to where neurotransmission is primarily a chemical process
synapse
Provides control of body movements
Cerebellum
Largest part of the brain consisting of two hemispheres
Cerebrum
Nerve fibers that connect the two cerebral hemispheres
Corpus Callosum
Involved in basica motivation, emotional expression, and control of the endocrine system
Hypothalamus
Contains the amygdala, hippocampus, and septal areas - involved with emotional expression
Limbic System
Motor movement - contains caudate nucleus, putamen, and substantia nigra
Basal Ganglia
Controls species-specific behaviors and influences facial expressions
Pons
Plays a practical role in arousal or alertness
Reticular Formation
Directs sensory information to the appropriate areas of the cortex
Thalamus
Controls vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure
Medulla
Contains the auditory cortex and Wernicke's area
Temporal Lobe
Contains the somatosensory cortex
Parietal Lobe
Involved in higher mental functions and consists of 75 percent of the cortex
Association Cortex
Contains the motor cortex, Broca's area, and is involved in emotional expression
Frontal Lobe
Contains the visual cortex
Occipital Lobe
Secretes hormones that act in association with the sympathetic nervous system and also increases metabolism
Adrenal Gland
Secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream or lymph fluids
Endocrine System
Secrete estrogens and or androgens
Gonads
Chemicals secreted into the bloodstream that influence target organs
Hormones
Releases a number of hormones that influence other glands
Pituitary Gland
Regulates metabolism
Thyroid Gland
The scientific study of the behavior and mental processes of humans and other animals
Psychology
Provides reliable information as opposed to subjective opinions
Scientific Method
An activity of an organism that can be observed
Behavior
Tentative attempts to organize and explain a body of data, facts, or observations
Theories
Organization :Applied Psychology
American Psychological Association (APA)
Organization : Academic Approach
American Psychological Society (APS)
Involve manipulating conditions or behaviors and observing the results
Emperical tests
Scientific approach to the study of behavior that emphasizes the relationship between environmental events and an organisms behavior
Behaviorism
Emphasizes the practical nature of the mind
Functionalism
Believes the relationship between the parts is more important than the individual parts
Gestalt Psychology
Emphasizes the role that free choice and conscious rational choices have on human behavior
Humanistic Psychology
Emphasized the role of the unconscious mind and sexual urges in influencing human behavior
Psychoanalysis
Attempts to reduce conscious experience to its basic elements (Introspection)
Structuralism
Developed his approach as a result of treating emotionally disturbed individuals
Freud
Was strongly influenced by Darwins Theory of Natural Selection
James
Believed that people have a natural tendency to strive for self actualization or attainment of their fullest potential
Maslow and Rogers
Pioneered the stimulus - response approach to psychology and emphasized objectively verifiable phenomena
Watson
Believed that the whole of an experience was different from the sum of its parts
Wetheimer, Kohler, and Koffka
Used introspection to study mental processes
Wundt and Titchener
Artificial Intelligence
Develops computer models that stimulate complex human cognitive processes
Biological
Focuses on the relationship between physiological processes and behavior
Clinical
Concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of serious psychological problems
Cognitive
Resulted in renewed interest in mental processes such as thinking, problem solving, and creativity
Counseling
Focuses on adjustment problems that are not serious psychological problems
Developmental
Concerned with factors that influence behavior and development througout the life cycle
Educational
Focuses on the study and application of teaching methods and learning
Engineering
COncerned with the relationship between the working enviornment, equipment, and people
Experimental
Primary activity is conducting research
Forensic
Works with the legal system in a variety of ways
Health
Concerned with how psychological and physical factors relate to the treatment and prevention of illness
Industrial/Organizational
Concerned with using pyschological concepts to make the workplace a more satisfying enviornment for employees and management
Personality
Focuses on the uniqueness of individuals and the key elements that provide the foundation of them
Social
Would be interested in topics such as interpersonal attraction, conformity, and group processes
School
Concerned with evaluating and resolving learning and emotional problems
Commonly focuses on a specific individual
Case Study
Provides information concerning the relationship between two variables
Correlational Method
Allows for conclusions about cause-and-effect relationships
Experimental Method
Elimates the possibility of inaccurate reports supplied b the subjects either intentionally or unintentionally
Observational Method
Provides information concerning attitudes and behaviors
Survey Method
Condition or factor that the reseracher manipulates
Independent Variable
Measure of behavior in an experiment
Dependent Variable
Varies between -1.00 and +1.00
Coefficient of Correlation
Subjects who receive the independent variable
Experimental Group
Subjects who do not receive the independent variable
Control Group
Associated with deception, debriefing, and the protection of confidentiality
Ethical Guidelines
Assessed behavior in a natural setting
Naturalistic Observation
Tendency of a researcher to misinterpret behavior
Observer Bias
Used because it is usually impossible to study all members of the group or population of interest to the researcher
Sample
Would include individuals who reflect or mimic the characteristics of the entire population of interest to the researcher
Representative Sample
May not accurately reflect or mimic the characteristics of the entire population of interest to the researcher
Random Sample
The tendency of individuals to modify their behavior because of the researchers presence
Observer Effect
Involves an individual answering a written list of questions
Questionnaire
Allowes the researcher to clarify confusing questions
Interview
Indicates that an increase in one variable is accompanied by an increase in a second variable
Positive Correlation
Reduce a quanity of data to a form that is more understandable
Descriptive Statistics
Mathematical methods used to draw conclusions about the meaning of data
Inferential Statistics
Reflect the middle, average, or typical score from a group of scores
Measures of Central Tendency
Specifies the procedures or techniques used to measure or observe a variable
Operational Definition
Mathematical methods used to describe and interpret data
Statistics
Reflect the distribution of scores from a group of scores
Measures of Variability
Arithmetic average of a group of scores
Mean
Score that falls in the middle of a distribution of a groupof scores
Median
Most frequently occuring score in a group of scores
Mode
Exists when the three measures of central tendency are close together
Normal Distribution
Difference between the highest and lowers scores in a group of scores
Range
Takes into account all scores in a group of scores and indicates how closely individual scoresa re clustered around the average score
Standard Deviation
Mathematical measure that allowes the researcher to determine, with a high level of confidence, if the independent variable was responsible for the difference in scores between the experimental and control group
Statistical Significance
Exists when the three measures of central tendency are very different
Skewed