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60 Cards in this Set

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intelligence quotient
a global measure of intelligence derived by comparing an individual's score of others in the same age group
interferenc theory
the theory that one memory competing with another like memory can cause people to forget
intimacy vs. isolation
in Erickson's theory, the key psychosocial conflict facing young adults in which they must establish lasting and meaningful relationships and develop a sense of connectedness and intimacy with others
introversion
refers to the way a person directs their energies. an introverted person directs energies towards their self; a person high in introversion tends to be quiet and solitary
James0Lang theory of emotions
the theory that emotions arise from the perception and interpretation of body changes
language
a system for combining arbitrary symbols to produce an infinite number of meaningful statements
late adulthood
sixty-five and beyond; completion of life cycle, hopefully with a sense of dignity and fulfillment
latent learning
describes learning that occurs in the absence of reinforcement but is not behaviorally demonstrated until a reinforcer becomes available
lateralization of function
the notion that specific cognitive functions are processed primarily on one side of the brain
learning
the relatively enduring change in behavior or knowledge as a result of past experience
levels of moral development
a theory proposed by Kohlberg that moral reasoning can be categorized into 3 distinct levels of moral reasoning: preconventional, conventional, and postconventional
long-term memory
the stage of memory that represents the storage of information over time
maintenance rehearsal
the process of repeating information so that it remains active in your short-term working memory
major depression
a mood disorder characterized by extreme and persistent feelings of despondency, worhtlessness, hopelessness, causing impaired emotional, cognitive, behavioral and physical functioning
manic episode
a sudden rapidly escalating emotional state characterized by extreme euphoria, excitement, physical energy, and rapids thoughts and speech
memory
the active mental processes that enable us to retain and use information over time
mental age
a measurement of intelligence in which an individual's mental level is expressed in terms of the average abilities of a given group
midbrain
the middle and smallest region of the brain, involved in processing auditory and visual sensory information
middle adulthood
Mid thirties to approxiamtely age 65; concern for family and society
MMPI Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
a self-report inventory taht assesses personlaity charactersitics and psychological disorders
mixed emotions
the experience of different emotional stated simultaneously or in rapid succession
mood congruence
an encoding specificity principle in which a given mood tends to evoke memories that are consistent with that mood
mood disorders
a category of mental disorders in which significant and chronic disruptions in mood is the predominant symptom, causing imapaired cognitive, behavioral, and physical functioning
moral reasoning
the aspect of cognitive development that has to do with how an individual reasons about moral decisions
motivation
the biplogical, emotional,cognitive, or social forces that activate and direct behavior
multiple intelligences
the theory that intelligence must be defined within the context of a particular culture and that there are several distinct, independent intelligences
naturalistic observation
a descriptive method of research used when the experiment is conducted in a natural setting
nature vs. nurture
a common way to refer to the controversy as to whether some trait or ability is the result of heredity or environmental factors
neg. reinforcement
a situation in which a response results in the removal, avoidance, or escape from a punishing stimulus, increasing the likelihood that the response will be repeated in similar situations
neg, stereotyping of aging
the tendency to associate "old age" with images of poor health, inactivity, social isolation, and mental and physical incompetence
nervous system
the primary communication system of the body comprised of the cnetral and peripheral nervous systems.
neurons
highly specialized cells that communicate information in electrical and chemical form
neurotransmitters
chemical messengers manufactured by a neuron
nonconcious racism
prejudicial reactions against a particular group of people that occur without the conscious awareness of the offender
NREM sleep
quiet sleep that is absent of rapid eye movement and is typically dreamless
obedience
the performance of an action in response to the direct orders of an authority or person of higher status
object permanence
the understanding that an object continures to exist even when it can no longer be seen
observational llearning
learning that occurs through observing the action of others
obsession
repeated, intrusive, uncontrollable thoughts or mental images
OCD
an anxiety disorder in which the symptoms of anxiety are triggered by intrusive, repetitive thoughts and urges to perform certain acts
operant conditioning
the basic learning process in which behavior is shaped and maintained by its consequences; learning involving positive and neg reinforcement
optimistic explanatory style
accounting for neg events or situtations with external,unstable, and specific explanations
out-group
a social group to which on does not belong
out-group homogenity effect
the tendency to see others of out-groups as very similar to one another
panic attack
a sudden episode of intense anxiety the rapidly escalates in intesity and is accompanied by feelings of fear
panic disorder
an anxiety disorder in which a person experiences frequent and unexpected panic attacks and is quick to use avoidance to lower anxiety
Pavlov
a russian scientist who discovered classical conditioning by showing how a dog can be conditioned to respond to a bell
perception
the process of intergrating, organizing, and interpreting sensory information in a way that is meaningful
perceptual grouping
the tendency to group different elements together in order to produce stable, well-defined perceptions
perceptual illusions
the misperception of the true characteristics of an object or image
perceptual set
the influence of prior assumptions and expectations on perceptual interpretations
Peripheral Nervous system
division of the nervous systme that includes all nerves lying outside the CNS
permissive parenting style
parenting style in which parents are extremely tolerant and undemanding; parents may be indulgent-permissive or indifferent-permissive
person perception's four principles
1 your reactions to others are determined by your perceptions of them not by what they really are
2 your goals determine the amount and kind of information you colect about them
3 you evaluate people partly in terms of how you expect them to act
4 your self perception influences how you percieve others
person perception
the mental processes we use to form judgements and draw conclusions about the characteristics and motives of others
personality
an individual's unique and relatively consistent patterns of thinking,feeling,and behaving
personlaity theory
a theory that attempts to describe and explain individual similarities and differences
pessimistic explanatory style
accounting for negative events or situations with internal stable, and global explantions
phobia
an irrational and illogical fear triggered by a specific object or situation
physical attractiveness stereotype
commonly associated with a varitey of desirable traits while actually not correlated with intelligence, mental health, or self-esteem