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11 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Major classes of antipsychotics and examples of each
Typical: Haloperidol, Thioridazine, Chlorpromazine

Atypical: Clozapine, Risperidone, Olanzapine
Difference between typical and atypical antipsychotics in terms of their effect on symptoms of psychosis
Typicals treat mainly the positive symptoms of psychosis, while atypicals work on both, the positive as well as negative symptoms.
Autonomic side effects of antipsychotics and drug in which it is this commonly seen
Autonomic side effects include anticholinergic (dry mouth, urinary retension, blurry vision, mydriasis), alpha 1 blockade (orthostatic hypotension), and antihistamine (sedation).

Auutonomic SE are common in high potency drugs such as haloperidol.
Class of antipsychotic drugs that is the treatment of choice for maintenance thereapy and why
Atypical, newer agents are DOC for maintenance therapy due to their lower risk of EPS and greater effect on negative symptoms.
Extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) and drugs in which it is commonly seen
EPS include: acute dystonia, akathesia, parkinsonism, tardive dyskinesia, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

These are commonly seen in high potency and typical drugs such as haloperidol.
Characteristics of acute dystonia caused by antipsychotics
Acute dystonia occurs within hours to days of treatment. The patient has muscle spasms or stiffness (torticollis, trismus), tongue protrusions and twisting, opisthotonos, and oculogyric crisis
Treatment for acute dystonia caused by antipsychotics
Antihistamine (diphenhydramine) or anticholinergic (benztropine, trihexyphenidyl)
Characteristics of akathisia caused by antipsychotics
Akathisia occurs within days of treatment. The patient has a subjective feeling of restlessness (pacing, inability to sit still)
Treatment for akathisia caused by antipsychotics
Beta blockers (propanolol)
Characteristics of parkinsonism caused by antipsychotics
Parkinsonism occurs within months of treatment. Patients have stiffness, cogwhee rigidity, shuffling gait, mask-like facies, and drooling
Treatment for parkinsonism cuased by antipsychotics
Antihistamine (diphenhydramine) or anticholinergic (benztropine, trihexyphenidyl)