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85 Cards in this Set

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physical responses (stress responses and mediators)
fight or flight syndrome ( increased heart rate, respiration, and muscle tension, sweating, pupillary dilation)
SAM and HPA activation (involving release of catacholamines and corticosteroids); eventual breakdown of organ systems involved in prolonged resistance to stressors.
psychological
Emotional: anger, anxiety, depression and other emotional states
Cognitive: inability to concentrate or think logically, ruminative thinking,catastrophizing
BEHAVIORAL: aggression and escape/avoidance tactics (include suicide attempts)
Mediators:
appraisal
thinking of something as a challenge will create less discomfort than focusing on the threat of failure
Mediators:
predictability
a tornado that strikes without warning may have a more devastating emotional impact than a long-predicted hurricane
Mediators:
Control
if you have control of the situation it will be less stressful
mediators:
coping resources and methods
having no effective way to relax after a hard day may prolong tension and other stress responses
Mediators:
social support
having no one to talk about a rape or other trauma may amplify the negative impact of the experience
type of coping method:
cognitive
stressors are thought of as challenges rather than as threats; avioding perfectionism
type of coping method:
emotional
seeking social support; getting advice
type of coping method:
behavioral
implementing a time-management plan; where possible, making life changes to eliminate stressors
type of coping method:
physical
progressive relaxation training; exercise; meditation
motivation
influences behaviors
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE:
intiation, direction, intensity, persistance of behavior

cant be directly observed, just inferred
Instinct theory
instinct: hard wired behavior
1. fear of snakes
2. love of sundresses
drive reduction theory
*we seek to maintain to homeostasis
*unbalance creates a NEED then a DRIVE
NEED-biological
DRIVE- psychological
*we seek to reduce drive
Arousal Theory
*explains some unnecessary actions (curiosity, risk taking)
*everyone has a peak performance level of arousal (we are motivated to maintain this optimal level of arousal)
Incentive Theory
*emphasizes the role of environmental stimuli that motivate behavior
-get positive rewards
-avoid negative impact
Types of drives:
PRIMARY
come from biological needs
*ex. need for food and water
* unlearned
Types of drives:
secondary
we act as though there is unmet basic need
* learned
* money
hunger
state of wanting to eat
satiety
state of not wanting to eat, "full"
ventromedial nucleus
stop eating
lateral hypothalamus
start eating
factors affecting sexual motivation and behavior include:
1. individual's physiology
2. learned behavior
3. the physical and social environment
extrinsic motivation
external rewards
intrinsic motivation
internal rewards
Approach-approach
choose between two parties
Avoidance-avoidance
pay a fine or go to jail
approach avoidance
want to eat out, but costs too much
MOTIVES
-intervening variable that drives motivation
-can be biological, emotional, cognitive, and social
AROUSAL THEORY
-explains some unnecessary actions (curiosity and risk taking)
-everyone has a peak performance level of arousal (we are motivated to maintain this optimal level of arousal)
INCENTIVE THEORY
-emphasizes the role of environmental stimuli that motivate behavior
-get positve rewards
-avoid negative impact
WANTING
process of being attracted to something
-i want pie right now
LIKING
evalution if something is good
-pie is good
What motivates sexual behavior?
PHYSIOLOGICAL
-sexual response cycle-
the pattern of physiological arousal during and after sexual activity
What motivates sexual behavior?
SOCIAL AND CULTURAL FACTORS
-Gender role learning
-interacts with biology
-scripts
What motivates sexual behavior?
SEXUAL ORIENTATION
-Heterosexual
-homosexual
-bisexual
What motivates sexual behavior?
SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION
-erectile disorder
-arousal disorder
-frigidity
NEED ACHIEVEMENT
Desire to master tasks, taking pride in doing so
EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION
External rewards
-money,respect,esteem
INTRINSIC MOTIVATION
internal satisfaction
-pride, self-esteem
MASLOW'S HIERARCHY OF MOTIVES
THE PYRAMID
1. physiological (food,water)
2. safety (nurturance, money)
3. belongingness and love (acceptance and affection)
4.esteem (respect)
5. self-actualization (maximazing one's potential)
APPROACH-APPROACH
choosing betweenn tow desirable but exclusive motives (parties vs. ice cream)
AVOIDANCE-AVOIDANCE
Chossing between two equally unattractive choices
-doing hwk or failing
APPROACH AVOIDANCE-
An activity has both posiive and negative elements
-making snowman or getting cold hands
MULTIPLE APPROACH-AVOIDENCE
a choice between two options that both have positive and negative features
CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBJECTIVE EMOTION
-TEMPORARY
-Positve or negative
-triggered partly by thoughts
-alters though process
-lead to action tendency
-passions, you cannot decide to fall in love
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
-cold and clammy hands
-increased perspiration
-dilated pupils
-increased heartbeat
-knots in your stomach
PYRAMIDAL
voluntary
EXTRAPYRAMIDAL
Involuntary
-associated with emotion
-deutshen smile
RIGHT HEMISPHERE
-Dominant in emotion
-brain damage
-displaying emotion
LEFT HEMISPHERE
-Secondary to the right hemisphere
-experiencing emotion
JAMES' PERIPHERAL THEORY OF EMOTION
-emotion is the physiological response
-physiological is the fear
*cold and clammy hands
*increased perspiration
*dilates pupils
*increased heartbeat
*knots in your stomach
CANNON'S CENTRAL THEORY
-Emotion starts in the brain
* emotion and physiology are simultaneous
-specific areas of the brain for different emotions
-aka Cannon-Bard Theory
COGNITIVE: SCHACHTER-SINGER THEORY
-cognitive and physiological combine to form emotions
-ATTRIBUTION-identifying cause of arousal
-EXCITATION TRANSFER- physiological arousal from one experience carries over to affect emotion in an independent situation
LAZARUS's COGNITIVE APPRAISAL THEORY
if you get a B on an exam you'll react differently depending if you got an A on the exam before or if you got a C on the prior exam
NON-VERBAL CUES
-body movement and posture
crossing arms
-tone of voice
sarcasm
-facial movements and expressions
furrowing brow
HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
-the field devoted to understanding psychological influences on:
*how people stay healthy
*why the become ill
*how they respond when they do get ill
-cooperates with doctors, nurses, public health workers
STRESS
- negative emotional and physiological process
-occurs as individuals try to deal with stressors
STRESSORS
-the events or situations to which people must adjust
PHYSICAL STRESSORS
-fatigue
-lack of sleep
-lack of food
PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESSORS
-any event that forces a person to change or adapt
Examples:
*catastrophic events-car accident
*life changes and strains-moving towns
*chronic stressors-living by airport,
*daily hassles-annoyances at work
Physical STRESS RESPONSES
-rapid heartbeat, breathing, etc.
GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME
• Three stage pattern of responses triggered by the effort to adapt to any stressor
1. Alarm Reaction- some version of fight or flight syndrome
• Controlled by sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system through organ and glands
2. Resistance Stage-
• Body settles in to resist the stressor on a long term basis
• The brain is still working psychologically to cope
3. Exhaustion Stage-
• Signs of physical wear and tear especially in organ systems that were weak to begin with or heavily involved in the resistance process
• If adrenaline and cortisol remain at high levels for a long period of time they can damage the heart and blood vessels. Remember, they help fight stressors during the resistance stage
PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS RESPONSE:
COGNITIVE RESPONSES
-ruminative thinking (recurring intrusion of thoughts about stressful events)
-catastrophizing
-mental sets
-functional fixedness
-impaired decision making
PSYCHONEUROIMMUNOLOGY
the field that examines the interaction of psychological, social, behavioral, neural, hormonal, and immune system processes that affect the body’s ability to defend itself against disease
LEUKOCYTES
-White blood cells
-mobile defense force
-b-cells, t-cells,natural killer cells
-macrophage
*stress suppresses the function of these cells
~they decrease in #s, activity, and cell responses
~increased likelihood of disease
ROSENTHOCKE'S HEALTH BELIEF MODEL
-perception of PERSONAL threat
-how serious is the potential illness
-would changing the behavior actually lower the risk?
-cost benefit analysis of changing behavior
Changing Behaviors:
PRECONTEMPLATION
The person does not perceive a health-related problem and has no intention of changing in the foreseeable future
Changing Behaviors:
CONTEMPLATION
The person is aware of a health-related behavior that should be changed and is seriously thinking about changing it. People often get stuck here. Smokers, for example, have been known to spend years “thinking about” quitting.
Changing Behaviors:
PREPARATION
The person has a strong intention to change; has specific plans to do so; and may have already take preliminary steps, such as cutting down on smoking.
Changing Behaviors:
ACTION
The person at this stage is engaging successfully in behavior change. Because “backsliding” or relapse, is so common when trying to change health-related behaviors, people must remain successful for up to six months before they officially reach the final stage.
Changing Behaviors:
MAINTENANCE
The person uses skills learned along the way to continue the healthy behavior and to prevent relapse
BURNOUT
-symptoms: irritable, withdrawn, depressed
-see in: teachers, nurses, social workers
POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER
-follows traumatic event
war, rape, etc.
-symptoms: jumpiness, sexual dysfunction,sleep problems, flashbacks
DIATHESIS-STRESS MODEL
-determines why some people will suffer from PTSD
-you're genetically predisposed
-different stressors determine if diseases will trigger
STRESS APPRAISAL
-is the stress a threat or challenge
-"repressors" deny and avoid stressors
-"sensitizers" seek out info. to cope with stressors
PREDICTABILITY AND CONTROL
-uncertainty about stressor increases its impact
*death: ill vs. healthy
-perception of control
*postsurgery patients info vs. no info
COPING RESOURCES AND METHODS
-resources: money, time, etc
COPING RESOURCES AND METHODS
PROBLEM FOCUSED COPING
-alter or eliminate the source of stress
problem solving, seek social support
COPING RESOURCES AND METHODS
EMOTION FOCUSED COPING
-Regulate the negative emotional consequences of stress
self-control, distancing, positive reappraisal
SOCIAL SUPPORT NETWORK
-Helps deal with stress
-lessens risk of disease and suicide
-improves recovery from illness
Coping Strategies:
COGNITIVE
Cognitive restructuring
-Stressors are viewed as challenges rather than threats
Coping Strategies:
EMOTIONAL
Seek social support
Coping Strategies:
BEHAVIORAL
change your behavior
Coping Strategies:
PHYSICAL
Change physical response
-progressive relaxation