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27 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
hallmark of retardation, categories of retardation, sex ratio
hallmarks: significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning (IQ < 70), deficits in adaptive functioning in at least 2 areas, onset before age 18

categories: mild (IQ of 55-70, 85% of cases), moderate (40-55), severe (25-40), profound (<25), severity unspecified

male-to-female ratio is 1.5:1
hallmark of a learning disorder
significant discrepency (typically 1-2 standard deviations) b/w IQ and achievement
autism (including sex ratio) v. Rett's v. Asperger's v. disintegrative disorder
autism: impairment in social interaction, impairment in communication, restricted repetoire of activities, onset must be prior to age 3, 75% comorbid MR, male: female = 4 or 5:1

Rett's: normal development thru 5 mo., 5-48 mo. there is sudden deceleration of head growth, acquired stereotyped hand movements, loss of social engagement, and appearance of poorly coordinated movements, females only

Asperger's: impairment in social interaction, restricted repertoire of bx, no language, cognitive, adaptive bx delays, more common in males, onset later than autism

disintegrative disorder: normal development for 2 yrs. followed by loss of skills before age 10 in at least 2 areas w/ abnormalities in social interaction, communication and restrictive bx, interests and activities, more common in males
ADHD v. conduct disorder v. oppositional defiant
ADHD: inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity, sx present before age 7, 2 settings, 6-9 times more common in males

conduct disorder: persistent pattern of bx in which the basic rights of others or societal norms are violated, childhood or adolescent onset, tx is multimodal

oppositional defiant: recurrent pattern of negativistic, defiant, disobedient, and hostile bx toward authorities, persists for 6 mo., bx manifested primarily at home
separation anxiety disorder; reactive attachment disorder
separation anxiety disorder: excessive anxiety about being away from home or caregivers for at least 4 weeks before age 18

reactive attachment disorder: disturbance in social relatedness in most contexts before age 5 due to grossly pathological care, inhibited or disinhibited type
substance abuse v. dependence
abuse: substance use resulting in problems due to use within a 12 month period

dependence: substance use that leads to impairment or distress with more sx than abuse including tolerance and withdrawal within a 12 month period
alcohol and sedative/hypnotic/anxiolytic intoxication and withdrawal
intoxication: bx and psych changes, slurred speech, incoordination, impaired memory and concentration, possible stupor or coma

withdrawal: autonomic hyperactivity, insomnia, nausea and vomiting, transient hallucinations or illusions, anxiety, psychomotor agitation, and seizures, potentially fatal
caffeine intoxication
more than 2-3 cups of brewed coffee, restlessness, flushed face, diuresis, gastrointestinal disturbance, muscle twitching, insomnia, rambling speech, agitation, tachycardia (rapid heart beat), differentiated from anxiety disorder by flushed face and diuresis
cocaine and amphetamine intoxication and withdrawal
intoxication: euphoria, hypervigilance, anger, impaired judgment, psychomotor agitation, tachycardia (rapid heart beat), nausea or vomiting, etc.

withdrawal: dysphoria, fatigue, unpleasant dreams, increased appetite, psychomotor agitation or retardation
opioid withdrawal
flu-like sx of nausea and vomiting, muscle aches, diarrhea, fever, insomnia, pupillary dilation, and dysphoric mood
schizophrenia- subtypes
paranoid: preoccupation w/ 1 or more delusions or frequent auditory hallucinations w/ no prominent disorganized speech, catatonic bx, flat or inappropriate affect

disorganized: disorganized speech, disorganized bx, flat or inappropriate affect

catatonic: motoric immobility, excessive and purposeless motor activity, negativism or mutism, peculiarities of voluntary movement or echolalia

undifferentiated: does not meet criteria for any subtype
best prognosis for schizophrenia
good prior functioning, late onset, abrupt onset, concomitant mood disorder, presence of a stressor, paranoid type, female
concordance rates for schizophrenia
identical twins (50%)
child when both parents have it (45%)
siblings/fraternal twins (10-15%)
parent to child (5-10%)
schizoaffective v. mood disorder with psychotic features
schizoaffective: uninterrupted period of illness during which there has been a major depressive, manic, or mixed episode concurrent w/ sx of schizophrenic, *delusions or hallucinations w/o prominent mood sx for at least 2 weeks*

mood disorder with psychotic features: mood sx are prominent and persistent w/ delusions or hallucinations only present during mood episode
delusional disorder
erotomanic: someone is in love w/ the individual

jealous: believes that sexual partner is unfaithful

grandiose: inflated self-worth, power, knowledge, or a special relationship to a deity or famous person

persecutory: the individual or someone close to individual is being ill-treated

unspecified: themes are not characteristic of any of above types
suicide risk factors; homicide risk
suicide: males complete 4-5:1, females attempt more, from western state, Native American (Latino and Asian - lowest), European:African = 2:1 (1:1 among adolescents), adolescent and elderly, divorced or widowed, mental disorder such as substance abuse or depression, greatest predictor is hx of serious suicide attempts, greatest indicator is suicidal intent, other: social isolation, recent loss, plan, poor impulse control, physical illness

bipolar I v. bipolar II disorder
bipolar I: at least 1 manic or mixed episode, may be hx of 1 or more major depressive episodes, equal male:female

bipolar II: at least 1 major depressive episode and at least 1 hypomanic episode, female>male
concordance rates for bipolar
identical twins (80%)
fraternal twins and siblings (20-25%)
treatment for agoraphobia v. panic disorder v. specific phobia v. social phobia v. OCD v. PTSD
agoraphobia: flooding w/ massed in vivo exposure

panic disorder: cognitive therapy, Tofranil or SSRI, situational in vivo exposure

specific phobia: in vivo massed exposure

social phobia: social skills training, relaxation, exposure, cognitive therapy

OCD: Anafranil, Prozac, flooding, thought stopping

PTSD: stress inoculation
conversion v. somatization v. hypochondriasis
conversion: 1 or more sx affecting voluntary motor or sensory functioning that suggest a neurological condition

somatization: hx of recurrent and multiple somatic complaints beginning before age 30 and lasting several years

hypochondriasis: preoccupation or fear of having or belief that one has a serious disease based on misperception of bodily sx
factitious v. malingering v. somatoform
factitious: physical or psych sx that are intentionally produced in order to assume a sick role w/ absense of external incentives

malingering: feigning of sx for external incentives

somatoform: presence of physcial sx that are suggestive of a disorder but cannot be fully explained by a mdical condition, sx not intentionally produced
naturally occuring hormone that regulates sleep-wake cycle, used to treat circadian rhythm sleep disorder
transvestitism v. transexualism
transvestitism: cross-dressing w/o desire to be the opposite sex

transexualism: person self-identifies and desires to establish a permanent social role as a member of opposite sex
paranoid personality v. schizophrenia, paranoid type
paranoid personality: pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others and tend to interpret actions of others as deliberately demeaning, threatening and malevolent (delusions or hallucinations not required)

schizophrenia, paranoid type: preoccupation w/ 1 or more delusions or frequent auditory hallucinations
OCD v. obsessive compulisive personality
OCD: obsessions (recurrent thoughts or impulses that cause distress) and/or compulsions (repetitive bx the person is driven to perform)

obsessive compulisive personality: preoccupation w/ orderliness, perfectionism, control, resulting in inflexibility and inefficiency
avoidant v. schizoid v. schizotypal v. schizophrenia
avoidant: social discomfort and inhibition, fear of and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation, feelings of inadequacy

schizoid: detachment from and indifference to social relationships, restricted range of emotions

schizotypal: discomfort w/ and reduced capacity for close relationships, peculiarities in cognition, perception, ideation, appearance, and bx, detached and lack desire for relationships

schizophrenia: not a personality disorder (not persistant and pervasive), must have psychotic sx
schizophrenia v. schizophreniform v. brief psychotic disorder
schizophrenia: sx persist at least 6 mo. w/ active sx for at least 1 mo.

schizophreniform: sx last at least 1 mo., but < 6 mo.

brief psychotic disorder: sx last 1 day - 1 mo.