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100 Cards in this Set

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An adaptive process by which individual experience produces long-lasting changes in the environmental guidence of behavior
-i.e. reinforcement increases a certain behavior
- discouragement ends/decreases a certain behavior
Occurs fastest when rewards are frequent and fixed
Occurs when the animal is rewarded for successive approximations of the behavior
Occurs when the behavior is no longer reinforced
-variable schedules take longer to extinguish
-Soon after extinction is initiated there is often a burst of responding from the behavior
Operant Conditioning
A form of learning in which behavior is affected by its consequence
Fixed Ratio
Reinforcement schedule in which rewards are given after a constant number of responses
Fixed Interval
Reinforcement schedule in which rewards are given for the first response after a fixed period of time
Variable Ratio
Reinforcement schedule in which rewards are given after a variable number of responses
Variable Interval
Reinforcement schedule in which rewards are given for the first response after a variable period
Edward Thorndike's Law of Effect
A favorable outcome strengthens to the behavior that produces it
-Stimulated research in the area of behavioral analysis
Operant Conditioning: Three term contingency
Situations in which there is a:
-Discriminating Stimulus
-A response
Positive Reinforcement
-An increase in a response due to a reward or positive reinforcer (appetitive stimulus
Negative Reinforcement
-An increase in a response due to the removal of an aversive stimulus
Decrease in response that is regularly followed by an aversive stimulus
Response Cost
A response decreases due to a loss of an appetitive stimulus
Classical Conditioning
Occurs in involuntary behavior
-Behavior that is acquired is a response to an elicting stimulus
Pavlov's Classic Study
Dog would salivate when owner was near door b/c he associated it w/ food
-conditioned to pair unrelated items.
Thorndike's Puzzle Box
A cat placed in a puzzle box had to pull the ring of wire inside the box to operate the latch. The door would then open and the cat could escape from the puzzle box and gain access to food
-Presented food after the response- caused it to increase in strength
Pavlov vs. Thorndike
Pavlov- Controlled the relation of an environmental stimulus (first) to an elicting stimulus (second). Limits the behavior that may be brought under environmental control to those responses that can already be elicited by another stimuli
Thorndike- Controlled the relation of a response (first) to the elicting stimulus (second). Opens up possibility of changing the environmental guidence of any behavior- select response and follow w/ eliciting stimulus
Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
Elicting stimulus that provokes the elicted response unconditional on anything that happens within the experiment i.e. shock
Unconditioned Response (UR)
The response that is elicted by the unconditioned stimulus (ie. fear)
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
The stimulus that reliably precedes the elicting stimulus (i.e. Belltone)
-Its ability to evoke the elicted response is conditional on its being paired with the elicting stimulus
Conditioned Response (CR)
The response evoked by the conditioned stimulus that is conditional on pairing the CS with the US. (i.e. fear due to the belltone)
Spontaneous Recovery
-The increase in responding on return to the training environment after an extinction procedure
Trial after 2 hours- will still respond
Stimulus Generalization
-Slightly different stimulus- The more different- the less responsive
-Learning in one environment affects behavior in similar environments
Stimulus Discrimination
-2 different stimuli, but only response to 1
-When behavior has different consequences in different environments
Forward pairing
-Start with CS, then US -overlapping
-Most effective conditioning
Trace Conditioning
CS, then space in time, then US
-Somewhat effective
Simultaneous Pairing
- CS and US at the same time
-Not very effective
Backward Pairing
- US then CS
-Ineffective or barely effective
Long term potentiation
Things that occur over and over with time produce stranger learning/ response
Little Albert's Fear conditioning
Conditioned fear in animals (rats)- also produced stimulus generalizations with other animals without concious awareness
What can we explain using classical conditioning?
Certain anxiety disorders- fixed through extinction
-Addictions-environments/people associated with drugs/alcohol=stimuli
An internal record or representation of a prior experience or event
Antereograde Amnesia
Inability to learn new things
-Clive Wearing
Retrograde Amnesia
Forget things from the past
Helps w/ new memory
Explict Memory
Remember events/ specific things
Implict Memory
Ability to remember motor skills
-Procedural memory
Sensory Memory
Limited in capacity and very brief- seconds
-Iconic (visual) and echoic (auditory)
-Temporary storage of sensory information
-Jevons (1871)- beans in a tray
-Sperling- Memory of quick flashes of letters
-Information that passes through attention gate is transferred to short term memory
Short term (working) memory
-Improved by chunking
-About 20 sec
-7 plus/minus 2
-Brief storage of information currently being used
-Elaborative rehearsal-information subjected to elaborative reherseal or deep processing is transfered to long term memory- acronym condolidation
Long term Memory
-Improved by context
-Reconstruction of events
Encoding Failure
Information has trouble getting there in the first place- i.e. pennies
Decay Theory
-A memory trace disappears as time passes
-Empirical evidence indicates that this is true: people forget more with time
-But it may be more important as to what the subject is doing during time
-Empirical evidence in sleep studies- more forgetting occured when a person stayed awake and experienced new material
Retroactive Interference
-Learn A, Learn B, Test B- Poor recall
Better: Learn A, Rest, Test A
Proactive Interference
-Learn A, Learn B, Test B- Poor recall
-Better: Rest, Learn B, Test B
Recency and Primacy Effects
In word lists, individuals seems to remember best the words at the beginning (primacy) and the end (recency) of the lists
-Recency effects are probably due to those words remaining in STM and no retroactive interference
-Primacy effects are probably due to the transition to LTM associated with rehearsing those words
Encoding Specificity
The circumstances where we learn material is where we best retrieve material-i.e. words heard underwater are best recalled underwater, words heard on land are best recalled on land
Survey information-context
Question-during reading
Read- Mnemonics, Method of Loci-associate items with various locations, Peg Word Method- associate each item with well established things in mind
Shallow level of processing
Thinking about whether two words or letters look alike- information is least likely to enter long term memory
Deeper level of processing
-Thinking about whether words rhyme
False memory debate
-Repressed memory
-Abuse as a child as an excuse for behavior
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
-Most commonly used intelligence test used in the US today
-Gifted refers to those persons whose IQ score exceeds 140
Two Factor Theory of Intelligence
-Charles Spearman (1927)
-Positive moderate correlation between specific ability tests due to general intelligence (G factor)
Cattell's types of intelligence
-There is more to intelligence than just the g factor
-Two types of intelligence
-Fluid- patterns, putting things together
-Crystallized- information- what you already know
The aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully to think rationally and deal effectively with the environment
Gardner's Multiple Intelligences
-People vary in their profile of 8 distinct forms of intelligence
-Logical/Mathematical, Spatial, Linguistic, Musical, Bodily/Kinesthetic, Naturalistic, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal
Sternberg Triarchic Model
1985- "Successful intelligence"
-Analytic intelligence-planning & acquisition of new information
-Creative intelligence- responding to novel and automated situations
-Practical Intelligence
Practical Elements to intelligence
-Evolutionary Skills
-Adaptation-fitting oneself into the environment
-Selection- Finding one's niche in the envrionment
-Shaping- Shaping the environment to suit your needs
Sternberg: Why Intelligent People Fail
(1986)- Believes that conventional intelligence tests tell us little about performance in everyday life and suggest a number of reasons why so-called intelligent people fail
-lack of motivation
-lack of impluse control
-lack of perserverance
-fear of failure
-inability to delay gratification
-too little/ too much self-confidence
-Sternberg suggest that if intelligence properly defined and measured it must translate into real-life success
IQ Scores are influened by....
-Socioeconomic status: middle class kids do better than lower class kids
-Language status: children from the dominant culture do better
Age: IQ scores on timed tests decline with age
Heredity: IQ scores of identical twins raised apart are quite similiar
What capacities does an infant have?
Maturation: Stable changes in childhood that are due to aging and not experience
Critical Periods: Periods in which certain experiences must occur if the child is to develop normally
-Language, motor movements, stereopsis
-CRITICAL TO LEARN AS AN INFANT- or will not learn them
Interpret external world in terms of our current schemas- new information incorporated
-Current schemas do not capture environment- adjust existing schemas and create new schemes. - changed by new experiences
Role of disequilibrium
Balance between assimilation and accomodation
-When child not changing much...assimiliates more than accomodates
-When child is changing rapidly...accomdates mores than assimilates
Stage of Development (Piaget)
Grouping of similar changes in schemes during the same period of development
-Invarient- Emerge in a fixed order
Sensorimotor Period
-Birth to 2 years
-Understand world by physically interacting with it
-Learning via circular reactions (repetition of events)
-Object permanence (understanding that objects exist when out of site) develops throughout this period
Pre-operational Period
-Ages 2-7
-Representation in terms of language
-Some development of symbolic thought
-Behaviors demonstrating preoperational thought
-Egocentrism- less aparent w/ time- 3 mountain problem
-Hierarchical classification- develops with time- Are there mor yellow boxes or boxes
-Conserving- develops with time- understanding that certain physical characteristics of an object remain the same, even when outward appearance changes-> size, volume, mass, #
-Thinking is perception-bound-distracted by concrete, perceptual aspects of objects
-Centration- Focus on one aspect of the problem- ignore all others
Concrete Operational Period
-Ages 7-11
-Can perform operations- manipulate an object, mental math, imagine scenes in one's head
-Characteristic behavior
-master problems of preoperational stage-i.e conservation
-think in terms of concrete information, but need objects, i.e stickes, apples
Formal Operations Period
-Ages 11 and older
-Characteristic Behaviors:
-Hypothetico-deductive reasoning- A is larger than C
-Thinking becomes increasingly abstract and a child at this stage can imagine what it would be like..i.e to go to the moon
Propositional Thought
-Ability to evaluate the logic of abstract statements
i.e. all frooks are purple...etc.
Limitations of Piaget's Theory
-Universality of stages:
-Only 40-60% of college students pass task requiring formal operations
-Problems with operational definitions
-Underestimated children's abilities:
-3 mountain problem can be solved by age 3
-Conservation may occur earlier in correct testing circumstances
-Object permanence in the very young?
Pre-Conventional Level (Morality)
-Morality of Punishment and Obediance- i.e. Heinz shouldn't do it bc he will be punished
-Naive Instrumental Hedonism- i.e. How will it effect Heinz?- No... he will get in trouble
Conventional Level (Morality)
-Good relations- How will other people percieve them, i.e. Heinz will be seen as a thief
-Social Order- Rule orientated- following rules/ law & order, i.e. Heinz shouldn't do it bc it is against the law
Post Conventional Level (Morality)
Social Contracts- Some laws are better than others, sometimes a higher order- not all laws necessarily moral, i.e. struggling b/w law and morality
-Universal Ethical Principles- Morals greater than law, i.e. value of life more important than breaking the law
Criticism of Kohlberg
-Dissociation b/w moral reasoning and moral behavior- i.e. rapisits, molesters, incest offenders- do not differ in moral reasoning
-Appreciation of the situation
-Are there stages? Universal, invarient
-Applicable to women?
-Strong affectionate bond we feel for special people in our lives
-Comforted in presence
-Particulary important in uncertain environments
Drive-Reduction Theory
-Primary Drive-Hunger
Secondary learned drive- tension relief
Strange Situation
Gauge how child reancts to:
-Strange environment
-Unfamiliar Adult
-Seperation from parent
-Reunion with parent
Stanger Anxiety
-Anxiety in presence of a stranger
-Age 6-12 months
- Male=greatest anxiety, child=least anxiety
Separation Anxiety
-Anxiety when seperated from caregiver
-Peaks at 15 months
Secure Attachment
-Parent as a base from which to explore room
-Cries when parent leaves
-Strong preference to parent over stranger
-Seeks contact and stops crying when parent returns
-70% likely
Avoident (Insecure Attachment)
-Not very responsive to parent when present
-Not distressed when parent leaves room
-Reacts similiarly to stranger and parent
-Slow to greet parent upon return, if at all
Resistant (Insecure Attachment)
-Before separation, seeks closeness to parent
-Does not explore much
-Angry when parent returns
-Not easily comforted by parent's return
Influence of parental vs. child factors on attachment
Meta-analysis of mother-child attachment
-Maternal influences: mental illness, child maltreatment-w/ maternal problems- 50% chance of secure/insecure attachment
-Infant Influences: Premature, developmental delays, physical or psychological disorder
Parental Styles associated with secure attachment
-Parent responds promptly to infant signals
-Expresses positive emotions towards infant
-Handles infant tenderly and carefully
Parenting Styles associated with avoidant attachment
-Parent insensitive to baby's needs
-little modulation in their response
Parenting styles associated with resistant attachment
-More sensitive to their own needs
-Parent interferes when baby begins to explore
-Parent impatient with child
Erickson's Eight Stages- Psychosocial development
-Trust vs. Mistrust- Can the world be trusted?
Autonomy vs. Self-doubt- Can I trust myself?
-Initative vs. Guilt
-Competence vs. Inferiority- Ability Level
-Identity vs. Role Confusion- Do I know who I am?
-Intimacy vs. Isolation- relationships or isolated
-Generativity vs. Stagnation- doesn't try new things- able to move around- try to new things
-Integrity vs. Despair- old age.. live your last days well vs. feel sorry for yourself
Getting old...
-Crystallized Intelligence (factual) is maintained throughout life
-Fluid intelligence declines slightly- creativity, problem solving
-Mental & Psychomoter speed tends to slow
-Remaining mentally active is important- i.e. nuns that teach late in life-keep skills active
State characterized by physiological arousal and changes in facial expression, gestures, posture, and subjective feeling
-A lot more than how we feel!
-Cognitive: thoughts, beliefs, expectations
Physioloigcal: Internal physical changes related to arousal
Behavioral: Outwards signs of an emotional state
Evolutionary Advantage of Emotions
-The fear response, the relaxation response, the disgust response
-Cross species- many species are similar and controlled by similar parts of the brain, most of our emotions are primal
-Emotions are often expressed through body and facial expressions and these expressions are critical to survival and reproduction
-There is a constant feedback between subcortical and cortical structures
Eight Primary Emotions (Plutchik, 2001)
-Surprise/ Anticipation
-Sadness/ Joy
-Disguist/ Affection (trust)
Low-intensity, long-lasting emotional state
-i.e. sadness=emotion, depression=mood
Where do emotions come from?
-Limbic system- involved in emotional states- i.e. amygdala, hypothalamus, cingulate
-Frontal lobes modulate emotions- i.e. Phineas Gage
The reinforcement circuit
-Olds and Milner tapped into highly reinforcing brain circuit
-Medial Forebrain- Nucleus accumbens
-Brainstem- ventral tegmental area
-Explains highly addictive drugs
James Lange Theory
-Emotional Stimulus (snake)->ANS arousal( behavior-run)--> Emotional feelings (fear)
-The emotion occurs after the body is aroused
Cannon-Bard Theory
-Arousal and emotion occur simultaneously
Emotional Stimulus (snake)->Thalamus->ANS arousal, Behavior, Emotional Feeling
Facial Feedback Theory
-Changes in facial expression produces arousal and emotion
-Emotional Stimulus (snake)-> Facial Expression-> ANS Arousal-behavior->Emotional feelings
Schacter's Two-Factor Theory
-Arousal causes the brain to find a reason for the arousal. Once the arousal is labeled, the emotion occurs
Emotional Stimulus (snake)->Arousal plus label ("I am afraid"-> Emotional Feelings (fear), behavior (run)