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50 Cards in this Set

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Law of Effect
A response that is followed by satisfying consequences becomes more probable and a response that's followed by dissatisfying consequences becomes less probable
Stimulus-response (S-R) Connection
Learning was an associate between stimulus and response learned. EXAMPLE: Cats learned to excape from the box because it leads to a desired outcome
Operant
Affecting the environment. Any behavior that is emitted by observable effects it has on its environment
Positive Reinforcement
When a behavior is followed by delivery of an appetitive stimulus. EXAMPLE: Pet turning in circles if treated by food.
Negative Reinforcement
When a behavior is followed by the delivery of an adversive stimulus.
Positive Punishment
When a behavior is followed by the removal of an appetitive stimulus.
Operant Extinction
If a behavior no longer produces predictable consequences, extinction occurs.
Stimulus Generalization
Once a response has been reinforced in the presence of a discriminative stimulus, a similar stimulus can become a stimulus for that same response.
Discriminative Stimuli
Organisms learn in the presence of some stimuli, but not others, their behavior is likely to have an effect on the environment. EXAMPLE: You want your kid to sit quietly during class but still be able to run and be noisy in the yard.
Three-Term Contingency
The means by which organisms learn that, in the presence of some stimuli but not others, their behavior is likely to have a particular effect on the environment.
Shaping: Successive Approximation
When you reinforce any responses that successively approximate and ultimately match the desired response.
Unconditioned (primary) reinforcements
Biologically determined reinforcers such as food and water.
Conditioned Reinforcements
Status symbols that influence your behavior. EXAMPLE: Grades, money, smiles of approvals
Continuous Reinforcement
Reward inforcement is given after every action
Intermittent Reinforcement
When reinforcer is at interval times, not continuously
Partial Reinforcement Effect
Responses acquired under interval enforcement are harder to undo
Biological constraints on learning
any limitations on learning imposed by a species genetic endowment
Instinctual Drift
When learned behavior drifts towards instinctual behavior.
How do Classical and Operant conditioning differ?
Operants are not elicited by specific stimuli like classical conditioning behaviors are. The probability of operants can be manipulated by environment.
Social-Learning Approach
When you use your cognitive capacities for memory and reasoning to change your own behaviors in light of the experiences of others. EXAMPLE: you try new foods often when someone reccommends it or gives good reason to like it.
Bobo Doll Study
Children watched one of two films. In one, the bobo doll gets attacked and in the other, the bobo doll gets left alone. Children who watched bobo get attacked were more likely to attack the bobo doll later.
Observational Learning
An individual by watching another persons behavior is later reinforced or punished to behave/not behave in the same way
Vicarious Reinforcement/Vicarious Punishment
Using the punishment or reinforcement of someone else's actions to effect your own.
Rudimentary face recognition
Babies are prewired for survival. Infants can recognize and interact with others nine minutes after birth.
Imitation
Babies older than 21 days can imitate facial expressions as a form of nonverbal communication
Fear of heights (visual cliffs)
Fear of the deep end depends on crawling experience. Children who had already begun to crawl were afraid of visual cliffs wheras children who were new to the motion were not.
Piaget's theory of cognitive development
Believed it happened in four developmental stages. Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operations and Formal Operations.
Schemes
Mental structures that enable individuals to interpret the world. Building blocks of developmental change.
Assimilation
Modifies new environmental information to fit into what is already known.
Accommodation
Restructures or modifies the children's existing schemes so that new information is accounted for more completely.
Sensorimotor Stage
Birth to age 2. Behavior is limited to an array of inborn schemes like sucking, looking, grasping and pushing
Object Permanence
Children's understanding that objects exist and behave independently of their actions or awareness (sensorimotor)
A-not-B effect
at 8 months is able to accept object permanence but doesnt realize that location is not an integral feature of the object. (sensorimotor)
Self-concept and red dot test
Mental representation of themselves. Between 1-2 years will recognize read dot on their face. (sensorimotor)
Preoperational Stage
2 to 7 years. Lacks operations: ability to transform or manipulate mental representations. Marked by egocentrism (child's inability to take the perspective of another individual) and centrism (liquid in the two types of cups)
Concrete Operations Stage
7-11 Years. Capable of mental observations (actions formed in the mind that give rise to logical thinking). Lack logical and deductive reasoning and systematic thinking. EXAMPLE: visually can tell that adam is taller than priya who is taller than sara but can't tell who is the tallest and needs visual representation.
Formal Operations Stage
11 years-death. Develops everything that can't be done in previous stages. Able to accept their reality is done of several imaginable realities.
Morality
System of beliefs about what actions are right and wrong
Consequences vs. Intentions
In preoperational stages children think someone who breaks 10 cups unintentionally is naughtier than someone who breaks one intentionally.
Caring for others vs. justice standard
Lowest stage for moral justice is self-interest while higher is based on social gain and wellbeing of others. Womens moral development is based on caring for others while men base their reasoning on justice
Cross-cultural Difference
Not possible to make universal claims about set situations.
Social Development
How individuals social interactions and expectations change across life span
Psychosocial Stages
Successive developmental stages that focus on an individuals orientation toward the self and others. These stages incorporate both sexual and social aspects of a persons developmental and the social conflicts that arise from interation between the individual and its social environment.
Socialization
Life long process to which individuals behavior patterns, values, standards, motives, etc are shaped in a particular society.
Attachment
Close relationship with caregiver. Beginnings of social relationships
Imprinting
A primitive form of living in which some animal infants physically follow and form an attachment to the first moving object they see or hear.
Proximity Maintenance
Infant stays close to primary caregiver and protests separation.
Safe haven
Infant turns to primary caregiver for comfort and reassurance
Secure Attachment
Trusting of others, view of self as worthy of love, lack of concern about abandonment
Ambivalent/Resistant attachment
Distrust of/detatchment from others; suppression of anciety over abandonment/discomfort with intimacy (doesnt cry when alone in room)