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48 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Primary Reinforcers
Secondary Reinforcers
p: incentives able to act as rewards w/o prior learning
s: incentives that gain their status through learning or other events ($)
Drive Theories
incentive theories
-internal reasons for motivation
-external reasons for motivation
Wanting:
Liking
Wanting: Anticipation of pleasure
Liking: comes from wanting in the past,
pleasure at the moment
Dopamine system
seems to serve as the currency for reward w/in the brain (from brainstem to pre-frontal cortex)
Homeostasis
Set point
constant internal state (equilibrium)
set point: value that homeostatic system tries to maintain
+/-10C = death
set point for weight/fat cells does not change only size of fat cells change, therefore dieting w/o exercise not forever
Hypothalamus
part of the brain that recognizes temperature/thirst/hunger changes.
can be fooled w/ stimulation

thirst: neurons become activated when salt level of blood rises-causing dehydration of these neurons

hunger: recognizes lower levels of glucose, signals hunger
Integrated Hunger Assessment: liver + stomach together
Extracellular Thirst
Intracellular Thirst
e: when our bodies lose water b/c we haven't drank or exercise extensively
i: CAUSED BY OSMOSIS
moved from zones of plentiful water to zones of less
Conditioned Aversion
Conditioned Satiety
A:Associative memories of food w/ something else unpleasant afterwards--come to hate the food
S: fullness we feel after a meal is at least in part a product of learning--when able to eat w/e amounts we please
Alliesthesia
final interaction b/w food incentives and homeostasis
-any external stimulus that fixes internal problem is pleasurable
Vagus nerve
receptors on stomach send signal of "feed me" through vagus nerve
also receive/send signals for the liver
Duddenum
=part of the intestines that receives food from stomach
=signal sent as a chemical --CCK
CCK
hormone that causes digestion but also works its way to the brain and is recepted
liver
receptors in the liver are highly sensitive to changes in blood nutrients
--send signal through vagus nerve
Ventromedial v lateral hypothalamic
ventro: lesioning CAUSES hunger
electrical stimulation DECREASES hunger
lateral: lesioning DECREASES hunger
electrical stimulation INCREASES hunger
CHANGE SET POINT DON'T CAUSE OR RUIN HUNGER ALL TOGETHER
Ghrelin
hormone released by stomach to tell of hunger
produced w/ stretch/contract of stomach; sent out when neural signal sent through vagus nerve
Regional Food preferences
preferences of spicyness due to latitude/temperature as high temp. used spicier foods to kill bacteria, vice-versa
Body Dysmorphic Disorder
psychological disorder in which people imagine problems w/ their body which are false
go to drastic measures to fix
after "fixing" still feel like there is a problem
body mass index
relative weight compared to the "norm"
Hunger Regulation Cycle
regulated by hypothalamus: lateral part
recreational/social eating
eating for fun or to be social (drinking too)
poor diet theory
reason for peoples increased obesity is bc of fast past and subsequent need for quick, unhealthily made foods
complex carbs
simple carbs
c: harder to break down, take longer,
s: easy to break down, faster metabolised
gender identity
Theories of sex typing
characterizing oneself as either male or female
acquistion of behavior indicative of culturally accepted items
kids are sex-typed bc sex is a major focus of their culture/environment
Gender Schema
set of beliefts about gender...looking through the world w/ gender lenses
considered counter intuitive to gender equality
Androgenization
influence of androgen
--androgen creates male. w/o it, person born will be female.
also operates on brain cells
Gonadotropin releasing factors
stimulate the pituitary gland which creates sex hormones--activate goands
sexual orientation
degree to which he/she is sexually attracted to others
a CONTINUUM
usually determined by adolescence
exotic-becomes-erotic
posits a critical, but limited role for biology in determining sexual orient
nature then nurture backs up or goes against
imprinting
early rapid learning that allows a newbordn to develop attachment to its mother
or closest social figure
Mere exposure effect
finding that familiarity (how close in proximity people are) all by itself increases liking
transference
our liking of a new person is influenced by if they remind us of someone from the past
self-expansion
close relationships should increase one's potential abilities and resources
passionate love
intensily emotinal state in which there is a confusino of feelings
compassionate love
affection we feel for those whose lives are intertwined w/ our own
long term holder
triange theory
love comprises of mixing of intimacy, passion, commitment
consummate love is the greatest
companionate love
full of commitment and intimacy, lack of passion
Red Queen Hypothesis
reproduction allows for more DNA combinations, harder to succumb to disease
engine & gearbox
cells able to work better together than separately
scaffolding
adults impose proper way to act on children @ early age
propinquity effect
closer you are to something, better the chance of liking it
sexual response cycle
excitement
plateau
orgasm
refractory

women not forced to refractory after orgasm, males are
ANXIETY hurts sexual behavior
paraphilias
result from many circumstances...could be paired through learning with sexual acts, general enjoyment of violence
can have fetish for anything
Red Queen Hypothesis
reproduction allows for more DNA combinations, harder to succumb to disease
engine & gearbox
cells able to work better together than separately
scaffolding
adults impose proper way to act on children @ early age
propinquity effect
closer you are to something, better the chance of liking it
sexual response cycle
excitement
plateau
orgasm
refractory

women not forced to refractory after orgasm, males are
ANXIETY hurts sexual behavior
paraphilias
result from many circumstances...could be paired through learning with sexual acts, general enjoyment of violence
can have fetish for anything