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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
d: short branches which receive neural impulses from adjacent neurons
s: cell body
a: tube that transmits messages
terminal buttons
myelin sheath
synaptic clef
tb:end of the axon that secretes neurotransmitters
ms:protective covering around axon. sheath acts as an inhibitor speeding up travel time.
sc: slight gap b/w terminal button and receiving neuron
glial cells
nt: chemical that diffuses across synaptic gap and stimulates next neuron
gc: non-neuron cells that act as protection against axons
multiple sclerosis
bundle of axons
ms: myelin sheath is broken down causing for a slowing down of action potentials down axon
action potential
chemical impulse that travels from cell body to end of axon
-cell membrane is semipermeable
-depolarization repeating itself down the length of the axon
ion channels
molecules form pores across cell membrane
-regulate sodium and potassium
-permeable to K during times of non-action potential
-permeable to Na during potential
ion pumps
high concentration of Na outside of membrane, K in membrane
resting potential
all-or-none principal
-electric potential at rest for a neuron (-40 to -100 millivolts)
-size of action potential is constant and cannot be changed
-only thing changeable is frequency
nodes of ranvier
saltatory conduction
n.r.: tiny gaps in axons s.c.: process by which nerve impulse jumps the ranvier
e: neurotransmitter that increases chance of action potential (change of cell charge (+))
i: neurotransmitter that works to hyperpolarize (-)
r: releasing cell recollects neurotransmitter after it releases synapse
d: breaking up of neurotransmitter by enzymes in synaptic cleft
norepinephrine that affects mood(prolong by slowing down reuptake)
blocks pumps from reuptaking DOPAMINE
1. bind onto receptos and cause for continuous potentials
2. block receptors so neurotransmitters not able to connect on
3. level at which action potential is created (different per cell/receptor site)
spacial summation
temporal summation
spatial: same message received to soma from multiple sources same time
temporal: same message received from 1 soma very quickly
alpha waves
delta waves
crude measure of cordical activity
alpha waves = brain waves usually during awake or first sleep cycle
dela waves = brain waves during 3rd/4th cycles
stages of sleep
1. brain waves become less regular-alpha waves
2. appearance of spindles and k-complexes
3. slow, delta waves
4. still deeper, more common delta waves
REM(rapid eye movement) vs. nrem
eye movememnts virtually nonexistent
very relaxed body

nearly paralyzed
brain appears to be wide awake
dreaming occurs
opponent-process theory
brain possesses two opponent processes that govern tendency to sleep/stay awake
circadian rhythm
homeostatic sleep drive
series of psychological/physiological changes to altertness (25 hrs)
pull/push between being asleep and being awake
-work together as CR is reset by sun/light and homeostasis will allow that to happen through proper sleep period
dissatisfaction w/ the amount or quality of one's sleep
-usually objective as person can only perceive of staying up all night/not dreaming
irresistible sleep attacks at any time of the day
person stops breathing during sleep
-either brain forget to elicit breathe command or
-diaphragm too relaxed
lucid dreams
events seem so normal as to feel awake and conscious
theories of dreaming:
1. psychoanalytic
2. activation-synthesis
3. memory reorganization
1. dreams as wishes/symbolism for other things
2. dreams as problem-solving from the day
3. dreams as memory storage and making sense of random firing of neurons during rem stage
sharp rise and fall in whole amplitude of EEG
during stage 2 sleep