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135 Cards in this Set

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in IQ testing, the chronological age of children who on the average receive a test score similar to that of the subject.
Mental Age
Intelligence measurement derived by dividing an individual's mental age by the chronological age, then multiplying by 100.
IQ
IQ test developed by Lewis Terman who revised Binet's scale and adapted questions to American students.
Stanford-Binet Test
Intelligence test developed by David Wechsler in the 1930s with sub-tests grouped by aptitude rather than age level.
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
Group IQ tests developed early in this century by the American Psycological Association to assist the army in making job assignments for soldiers.
Army Alpha and Beta tests
Group IQ test for children of all ages that is widely used in schools
Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT)
Group intelligence test widely used in many school systems
Cognitive Abilities Test (CAT)
uniform and consistent prodecures for administering and scoring tests, such as IQ or personality tests.
Standardization procedures
Standard that reflects the normal or average performance of a particular goup of people on a measure such as an IQ test
norm
in testing, the dependable consistency of a test
reliability
method for evaluating test reliability by giving a subject (or subjects) the same test more than once.
Test-retest reliability
method of assessing test reliability in which subjects take two different forms of a test that are very similar in content and level of difficulty
Alternate-forms reliability
measure of test reliability in which a subjects performance on a single administratioon of a test is assessed by comparing performance on half of the test items with performance on the other half of the test terms.
split-half reliability
in testing, the ability of a test to measure accurately what it is supposed to measure
validity
method of assessing test validity that involves comparing peoples' test scores with their scores on other measures already known to be good indicators of the skill or trait being assessed.
Criterion-related validity
type of criterion related validity that involves comparing test performance to other criteria that are currently available
concurrent validity
type of criterion-related validity assessed by determining the accuracy with which tests predict performance in some future situation.
predictive validity
test designed to predict an individual's ability to learn new information or skills
aptitude test
test designed to measure an individual's learning (as opposed to the ability to learn new information)
achievement test
one of the two factors in Charles Spearman's conceptualization of intelligence, that consists of general intelligence and is largely genetically determined
G-factor
In Charles Spearman's two-factor theory of the structure of intelligence, the specific abilities or skills.
S-factor
In L.L. Thurstone's theory of the structure of intelligence, the separate and measurable attributes (for instance, numerical ability) that make up intelligence
Primary mental abilities
theory that intelligence is a multidimensional trait comprising componential, esperiential, and contextual abilities
triarchic theory of successful intelligence
an estimate ranging from 0 to 1.0 that indicates the proportion of variance in a trait that is accounted for by heredity
heritability
differences or response variability, within treatment conditions
within-group differences
differences, or response variability between treatment conditions
between-group differences
projective test for personality assessment in which the subject is shown cards depicting various scenes and is asked to describe what is happening in each scene
thematic apperception test (TAT)
personality tests that consist of loosely structured, ambiguous stimuli that require the subject's interpretation
projective tests
commonly used projective test in which the subject is asked to examine inkblots and say what they look like or bring to mind
Rorschach inkblot test
assessment test in which each test item is referenced to one of the original criterion groups that were used in developing the test
criterion-keyed test
method used in psychologoical studies in which an individual is asked questions. -may be informal and unstructured or they may be highly structured
interview
in personality testing, an objective, self report inventory designed to measure scientifically the variety of characteristics or traits that makeup personality
paper-and-pencil questionnaire
individual's belief that he or she can perform adequately and deal effectively with a particular situation
self-efficacy
principle that individual behaviours and personalities are shaped by the interaction between cognitive factors and environmental factors
reciprocal determinism
developed the idea of reciprocal determinism
albert bandura
insecurity that results when children perceive their parents as indifferent, harsh, or erratic in their responsiveness
basic anxiety
motivates one of three ineffectual patterns of social interaction
basic hostility
universal urge to achieve self perfection
striving for superiority
powerful emotionally charged universal images or concepts in Carl Jung's theory of the collective unconcious.
archetypes
kind of universal memory bandk that contains all the ancestral memories images, symbols, and ideas that humans have accumulated throughout their evolvement
collective unconscious
part of the the uncounscious that is akin to Freud's concept of a reservoir of all repressed thoughts and feelings
personal unconscious
arrested development resulting from exposure to either too little or too much gratification
fixation
the atraction a male child feels toward his mother during phalic stage
oedipus complex
female counterpart of oedipus conflict
Electra complex
defense mechanism in which the ego unconsciously replaces unacceptabel impulses with their opposites
reaction formation
a powerful dominating behavioral predisposition that is an organizing principle in a small number of people's lives
cardinal trait
distinctive patterns of behavior, emotions and thoguhts that characterize an individual's adaptations to his or her own life
personality
a major characteristic such as honesty or sensitivity
central trait
any of a varity of less generalized and often short-term traits that affect people's behavior in specific circumstances
secondary trait
dimensions or traits that are usually obvious such as integrity or tidiness that tend to be grouped in clusters that are related to source traits
surface traits
underlying traits that are the center or core of an individual's personality
source traits
psychoanalytic technique developed by Freud in which patients relax and say whatever comes to their mind
free association
vast reservoir of the mind that holds countless memories and feelings that are repressed or submerged because they are anxiety-producing
unconscious mind
technique developed by Freud in which an individual's revelations of normallly unconscious cognitions are interpreted
psychoanalysis
views people as shaped by ongoing conflicts between primary drives and the social pressure of civilized society
psychoanalytic theory
the biological component of personality consisting of life instincts and death instincts
id
individual substitutes self-justifying excuses or explanations for the real reasons for behaviors
rationalization
individual reduces anxiety created by unacceptabel impulses by attributing thoe impulses to someone else
projection
defense mechanism in which as person diverts his or her impulse-driven behavior from a primary target to secondary targets that will arouse less anxiety
displacement
form of the defense mechanism in which impulse driven behaviors are channeled toward producing a socially valued acomplishment
sublimation
believed that genes dont fix behavior but establish a range of possible ractions to the experiences an environment can provide
Weinberg
studied heredity of intelligence in rats
Cooper and Zubek
recently presented evidence that Burt's experiment may not have been a fluke
John Rushton
conducted twin studies that showed intelligence was most likely hereditary
Sir Cyril Burt
proposed 7 kinds of intelligence, 3 of which were normal and the other 4 -musical, bodily kinesthetic, inter/intra personal
Howard Gardner
studied "practical intelligence" focused on how information is processed to solve problems. said intelligence doesn't have to = speed
Sternberg
believes any intellectual task can be analyzed in terms of 3 major intellectual functions
Guliford
said if IQ differences between individuals were genetically influenced then this might also be true for races
Arthur Jensen
criticized Spearman, believed measuring a person's intelligence would require measuring all 7 primary mental abilities
Thurstone
studied structure of intelligence and factor analysis
Charles Spearman
made test for late adolecense to adulthood
David Wechsler
Americanized Binet's test to Stanford-Binet test
Lewis Terman
mental age/ chronological age x 100
IQ
coined term "mental level" came up with intelligence tests for french schools
Alfred Binet
believed upper class were more intelligent and the men were superior to women, and that caucasions were superior to other races
Sir Francis Galton
defined intelligence as ability to think abstractly
Lewis Terman
considered intelligence the ability to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with the environment
David Wechsler
id
in Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, the biological component of personality cnsisting of life instincts and death instincts.
libidio
in Freud's psychoanalytic theory, the energy that fuel the id and motivates all behavior
anxiety
free-floating fear or apprehension that may occur with or without an easily identifiable source
oral stage
the first stage of psychosexual development spanning birth through 12-18 months during which the lips and mouth are the primary erogenous zone
ego
In Freud's psychoanalytic theory, the component of persnality that acts as an intermediary between the instinctual demands of the id and the reality of the real world
superego
according to Freud, the third system of persnality that cnsists of an individual's conscience as well as teh ego-ideal (the shoulds of behavior)
Defense Mechanism
in Freud's psychoanalytic theory, an unconscious maneuver that shields the ego from anxiety by denying or distorting reality
repression
in psychoanalytic theory, the defense mechanism by which ideas, feelings, or memories that are too painful to deal with on a conscious level are banished to the unconscious
rationalization
defense mechanism in which an individual substitutes self-justifying excuses or explanations foor the real reasons for behaviors
projection
defense mechanism in which a person diverts his or her impulse-driven behavior from a primary target to secondary targets that will arouse less anxiety
id
in Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, the biological component of personality cnsisting of life instincts and death instincts.
libidio
in Freud's psychoanalytic theory, the energy that fuel the id and motivates all behavior
anxiety
free-floating fear or apprehension that may occur with or without an easily identifiable source
oral stage
the first stage of psychosexual development spanning birth through 12-18 months during which the lips and mouth are the primary erogenous zone
ego
In Freud's psychoanalytic theory, the component of persnality that acts as an intermediary between the instinctual demands of the id and the reality of the real world
superego
according to Freud, the third system of persnality that cnsists of an individual's conscience as well as teh ego-ideal (the shoulds of behavior)
Defense Mechanism
in Freud's psychoanalytic theory, an unconscious maneuver that shields the ego from anxiety by denying or distorting reality
repression
in psychoanalytic theory, the defense mechanism by which ideas, feelings, or memories that are too painful to deal with on a conscious level are banished to the unconscious
rationalization
defense mechanism in which an individual substitutes self-justifying excuses or explanations foor the real reasons for behaviors
projection
defense mechanism in which an individual reduces anxiety created by unacceptable impulses by attributing those impulses to someone else
displacement
defense mechanism in which a person diverts his or her impulse-driven behavior from a primary target to secondary targets that will arouse less anxiety
sublimation
form of the defense mechanism displacement in which impulse-driven behaviors are channeled toward producing a socially valued accomplishment
regression
defense mechanism in which an individual attempts to cope with an anxiety-producing situatin by retreating to an earlier stage of development
reaction formation
defense mechanism in which the ego unconsciously replaces unacceptable impulses with their opposites
Psychosis
disturbances of thinking, reduced contact with reality, loss of ability to function socially, and other bizarre behaviors
OCD
anxiety disorder characterized by persistent, unwanted, and unshakable thoughts and/or irresistible habitual repeated actions.
somatoform disorder
class of disorders including somatization disorder, hypochondriasis, and conversion disorder that are manifested through somatic or physical symptoms
hypochondriasis
somatoform disorder in which the individual is excessively fearful of contracting a serious illness or of dying
somatization disorder
type of somatoform disorder characterized by multiple and recurrent physical symptoms that have no physical cause
Social Learning Theory
theory that empathizes the role of observation in learning
Preconscious
mental state describing thoughts and memories that exist on the fringe of awareness, and that can be readily brought into consciousness
unconscious
level of mental awareness describing ideas, feelings, and memories that cannot easily be brought into consciousness
consciousness
state of awareness or alertnes to proceses that are going on insede or outside one's own body
anxiety disorders
most prevalent disorders in the US
Personality disorder
diverse class of disorders that is characterized by inflexible and mal adaptive personality traits that cause either functional impairment or subjective distress
Paranoid
extreme and pervasive suspiciousness, mistrust, and envy of others, hypersisitivity and dificuty in getting along with others, restricted expression of emotion, inclided to avoid intimacy
Schizoid
very cold, aloof, and socially isolated; unable to form close relatinships, humorless; appears to be indifferent to praise or criticism
Antisocial
a continuous pattern of utter disregard for the rights of others and the rules of sociaity
Narcissistic
sense of self importance; preoccupied with fantasies of great achievements; childish demands for constant attention and special favors,; little empathy for others
external locus of control
believe that their own behavior doesn't matter much and that rewards in life are generally outside of their control
internal locus of control
believe that their own actions determine the rewards that they obtain
Fetal alcohol syndrome
variety of developmental complications including spontaneous abortion, premature birth, infants born addicted to alcohol, and numerous developmental disabilities that are related to the mother’s use of alcohol during pregnancy
Guliford
belved any intellectual task could be analyzed in terms of 3 major intellectual functions- the mental operatioons that are used (how we think) the content (what we think about) and the products of applying a particularaperation to a particular content
Sternberg
practical intelligence- focus on how process information to solve problems intelligence doess nt necessarily equal speed
Howard Gardner
philophically agrees with Sternberg But proposes 7 kinds of intelligence, 3 normal, 4 new (musical, bodily, kinesthetic, inter/intra personal)
Sir Cyril Burt
twin studies showed intellegence was shot down when 2 of his "assistents" never existed
Cooper and Zubek
studied intelligence herdity in rats
Weinburg
genes dont fix behavior but establish a range of possible reactions to the range of possible experiences that environments can provide.
Arthur Jenson
said if IQ differences between individuals were gentically influencesd then it might also be true for races
Lewis Terman
defined intelligence as ability to think abstractly
David Wechsler
cnsidered intelligence the ability to think ratinally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with the environment
Sir Francis Galton
believed upper class were more intelligent, men were superior to women caucasions were superior to other races
Alfred Binet
coined the term "mental level" (mental age) came up with intellegence tests for French schools when education was ruled mandatory
Wilhelm Stern
mental age/chronological age x 100 = IQ
Lewis Terman
americanized Binet's test to Stanford Binet test
David Wechsler
made test for late adolecense to adulthood
Charles Spearman
structure of intelligence- factor analysis
Thurstone
criticized Spearman, believed measuring a person's intelligence would require measuring all 7 primary mental abilities