Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/151

Click to flip

151 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Cooper & Faizio -- 4 steps of cognitive dissonance
"NRPA"
Negative consequences?
personal Responsibility?
Physiological arousal?
Attribute arousal to behavior?
Newcomb
dormitory friendships
short term - proximity
long term - similarity
Aronson & Jones (social)
rewardingnesss
Zajonc
familiarity -mere exposure effects
Lee Ross (social)
studied subjects made to believe a stetment, told later it was false. People made up own reasons to believe statement.
Fritz Heider
founder of:
a. attribution theory
b. balance theory
Richard Nisbett
showed that we lack awareness of why we do what we do
Ellen Langer
illusion of control
Daryl Bem
overjustification effect
Two-factor theory of intelligence
Spearman - general and specific
Concurrent validity
The intelligence test score is correlated with a relevant criterion, such as school performance.
Construct validity
The IQ test score is used to see if it supports a theoretical prediction such as a high IQ will be positively correlated with simple reaction times.
Sternberg's 3 kinds of intelligence
1. componential - linguistic, math, etc
2. contextual
3. experimental - creativity
Gardner
seven DOMAINS of intelligence
Who translated Binet & Simon into English?
Terman; Stanford-Binet
Bartlett
constructive memory
Craik & Lockhart
levels of processing
von Restorff effect
remember unusual or novel
Loftus
eyewitness testimony - misinformation
Paivio
dual code hypothesis:
visual mem = concrete
verbal mem = abstract
Tulving
encoding specificity
Miller
chunking
STM = 7 +/- 2
Gordon Allport
ideographic approach
cardinal vs. secondary traits
F-scale
measures obedience
Lewis Goldberg (personality)
Big Five
Rotter
Locus of control
Sullivan (personality)
importance of personal relationships in personality
Kelly (personality)
Role Construct Repertory Test - personality in terms of role definitions
Rogers' conscious-self-structure (personality)
all the untested ability messages given to us in the past
Roger Brown (language)
childrens' understanding of grammatical rules develops as the make hypotheses about how syntax works, then self-correct
Katherine Nelson
language really begins to develop with the onset of active speech
William Labov
Ebonics has its own complex inner structure
Vygotsky & Luria
studied development of word meanings, found them to be complex and altered by personal experience; language is a too in developing abstract thinking
Charles Osgood
semantic differential charts - people plot meanings of words on graphs, people from similar backgrounds plotted similarly -- "connotations"
concept
how one reprsesents a realtionship between two things
hypothesis
ideas used to test relationships & then form concepts
mental set
preconcoeived notion of how to look at a problem
schema
cognitive structure that includes ideas about events or objects and the attributes that accompany them
scripts
ideas about the way events usually unfold
J.P. Guilford
convergent (one solution) vs. divergent thinking
deductive reasoning
general --> specific
inductive reasoning
specific --> general
delayed conditiong
presentation of CS lasts until UCS is presented (more effective than trace)
trace conditioning
CS is terminated before the UCS is presented
telegraphic speech
speech w/o articles or extras, i.e. "Me go"
holophrastic speech
child uses one word to convey a whole sentence ("me" may mean "give that to me")
school of structuralism
Wundt, Tichener?; studied mind through "introspection", lacked objectivity
school of functionalism
Dewey, James; emphasized behavior, adaptation to environment, influenced by Darwin
school of behaviorism
Watson, Skinner; "objective functionalism", influenced by Pavlov, objective observation
Gestalt school
Wertheimer, Kohler, Koffka; reaction to behaviorism, emphasized studying the whole person
Hull
drive-reduction theory
Hebb
nerves that fire together wire together; long term potentiation
Tolman
Expectancy value theory; latent learning; cognitive map
Garcia
biological constraints in learning (i.e. nausea)
Rescorla & Wagner
classical conditioning - contingency vs. contiguity
Thorndike
Law of Effect; cats in puzzle box
Walter Cannon
coined the term "fight or flight"; also "homeostasis"
Tryon
bred "maze bright" and "maze dull" rats
Glasser's ______ Therapy
Reality; sign contract with therapist
continuity theory of thought
Hull & Spence; learning/associationist background; concepts are a result of repeated S-R pairings and generalization
Noncontinuity theory of thought
Lashley & Krechevsky; subject tests a hypothesis and learning is rapid when relevant stimuli are attended to
Inductive reasoning (theory of though)
Bruner; specific instance --> general rule (global process; tests all hypothese simultaneously rather than sequentially)
medulla
breathing, heartbeat
Kurt Lewin
"father of social psychology"
(lateral) ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus
Stimulation of this area causes increased food intake.
lesion of the medial part of the ventromedial nucleus
causes hyperphagia and obesity of the animal.
Dollard & Miller
frustration-aggression hypothesis
Lerner
just world hypothesis
Cialdini
strength of need for consistenchy
social distance scale
Bogardus
developed a scale technique of "equal-appearning intervals" - sorted by judges
Thurstone
looked for statements w/ low variabilit amyong judges; tried to make an equal number of statements for each category
unidimensional scale
scale arranged sequentially; Guttman
Melzack
"gate-control theory" of pain
Ekman & Friesen
We can correctly identify seven universal facial expressions: happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, surprise, contempt
Schacter-Singer
arousal is interpreted on the basis of context
Bowlby
importance of social stimulation to survival
Valins & Reisenzein
Arousal is not a prerequisite for experiencing an emotion. Cognitive processes alone can do it. (Challenged Schacter-Singer)
Yerkes-Dodson law
increases in motivation and arousal bring increases in emotion; MID RANGE level is optimal
Selye
General Adaptation Syndrome:
1. alarm
2. resistance
3. exhaustion
Lewis and Saarni's 5 basic elements in emotion
Elicitors (triggering events)
Receptors (brain mechanisms)
States (physiological changes)
Expressions (visible changes)
Experience (interpretation)
Petty and Cacioppo
Elaboration Likelihood Model
McGuire
Innoculation theory (persuasion)
Sherif & Sherif
superordinate goal
Therapy:
Psychodynamic: Individual
Adler
Inferiority vs. superiority
social interest as a determinant of mental health
Therapy:
Psychodynamic: Analytic
Jung
Archetype
Collective Unconscious
Introversion/Extroversion
Persona
Anima/Animus
Therapy:
Psychodynamic: Interpersonal
Sullivan
Therapy:
Psychodynamic: Cultural
Horney
Therapy:
Psychodynamic: Sociopsychoanalytic
Fromm
5 types of love: brotherly, motherly, erotic, self, supreme being
Therapy:
Behaviorist/Learning: Radical
Watson, Skinner
Therapy:
Behaviorist/Learning: Social
Bandura, Rotter
Therapy:
Behaviorist/Learning: Reciprocal Inhibiton
Wolpe
informational vs. normative influence (conformity)
audience belief vs. avoidance of negative consequences or ostracism
Sternberg's _______ theory of love
Triangular
Therapy:
Psychoanalytic in learning-theory perspective
Dollard & Miller
(frustration-agression hypothesis peeps)
Therapy:
Behaviorist/Learning Theory: Two-factor
Mowrer
Classically conditioned fear, instrumentally conditioned escape/avoidance
Therapy:
Phenomenological: Client-centered
Rogers
organized and goal-directed behavior, conscious self-structure, striving to actualize
Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow
Logotheapy
Franl
existential vacuum
Theory:
Personal constructs
Kelly
C-P-C cycle (circumspection-preemption-control)
also Role Construct Repertory person
Transactional analysis
Berne/Harris
Personology; Viscerogenic (primary) needs and Psychogenic (secondary) needs
Murray
somewhat a peronality theorist, psychogenic needs (e.g. achievement) later followed by McClelland
Personality test by Gough
California Psychological Inventory (CPI)
standardized on a normal diagnosed sample from population
Personality test: Q-sort
Rogers
measures difference b/w the actual and the real self
we care a lot about what other people think of us
Implosion (flooding) person
Stampfl
stamp out the fear
conditioned aversion
Wolpe, et al.
Gestalt Therapy
Perls
Focus on bodily movements and and expressions, sunchrony b/w feelings and words
Multi-modal therapy
Lazarus
help the client anticipate potentially stressful situation and formulate response options
He doesn't want people to suffer
Psychodrama
Moreno
don't be stupid with other people
Primal
Janov
primal scream
where do we come from?
Use of numbers:
Nominal
to label
Use of numbers:
Orinal
to rank
Use of numbers:
Interval
to express consistent interval values at different points in a distribution
Use of numbers:
Ratio
premised on an absolute zero
Histogram
bar graph representing score intervals
What percent of a sample falls b/w 2 & 3 standard deviations in a normal distribution?
4%
What percent of a sample falls b/w 1 & 2 standard deviations in a normal distribution?
28%
Negative skew
scores bunched at the right and tail off (or skew) to the left
Positive skew
scores bunched at the left and tail off (or skew) to the right
"Cardinal rule" of a skewed distibution
mean moves in the direction of the skew
Gibson's view of perceptualprocesses
Ecological
using information from the environment to support actions
Rock's view of perceptual processes
Constructionst
constructing a representation of the enironment with sensory fragments
Green's view of perceptual processes
Computational
explaining complex computations w/in the NS that translate sensory stim into representations of reality
Binocular cues
Retinal disparity
Covergence
Motion cues (visual)
motion parallax
optic flow
size constancy illusions
Muller-Lyer
Ponzo
moon illusion
syllogism
contains two premises and a conclusion
Clinical method of child observation
Piaget
some intervention, open-ended
Naturalistic approach to child observation
Gesell
William McDougall (Instinct theory)
1908-listed eighteen human instincts, including self-assertion, reproduction, pugnacity, gregariousness
instinct to produce instincts
Gray's Approach-Inhibition theory
BIS-BAS to describe introversion-extraversion
Primary Social-Cognitive Theorists
Rotter, Bandura, Mischel
Rotter's Expectancy Theory
Person's decision to engage in behavior is detemined by:
1. what the person expects to happen following the behavior
2. the value the person places on that outcome
How does a person decide whether or not to engage in a particular behavior?
Bandura's social-cognitive theory
Reciprocal Determinism
web of influence, every factor affects every other factor
Most important cognitive element in reciprocal determinism
self-efficacy
environment vs. me
Mischel's Cognitive/Affective Theory
cognitive personal variables (learned):
1. encodings (beliefs the person has about the environment and other people)
2. expectancies
3. affects
4. goals and values
5. competencies and self-regulatory plans
EEAGC
3 Prominent mental hospital reformers
Dorthea Dix, Clifford Beers, William Tuke
Sex, alcohol, pot :)
Masserman
conditioned neurotic behavior in cats
conditioning
Tolman
moved away from behaviorism by distinguishing b/w learning and behavior-
"latent learning", "cognitive map"
"Puprposive Behavior in Animals and Men"
Thorndike's Law of Exercise
a) Stimulus-response connections that are repeated are strengthened, and
b) Stimulus -response connections that are not used are weakened.
Hobson and McCarley
The primary motivating force for dreaming is not psychological but physiological since the time of occurrence and duration of dreaming sleep are quite constant, suggesting a pre-programmed, neurally determined genesis. Specific stimuli for the dream imagery appear to arise from the brain stem and not from cognitive areas of the cerebral cortex.
Opponent process theory of emotion
Solomon
The brain functions to suppress emotonal responses. When and emotional response occurs, its opposite is subequently experienced.
Preparatory instruction serves to
shorten reaction time
Visual and thermal reaction times prove faster when
more sensory space is covered by the stimulus
Hebb
drive concept should be replaced by a concept of optimum level of arousal
Ganzfield
a term used to describe a perfectly homogeneous visual environment
the rod and frame test is designed to study
susceptibility to contextual cues
Bekesy
frequency theory of hearing
maximal frequency
Touch receptors:
Pcinian corpuscules
deep pressure
Touch receptors:
Meissner corpuscules
touch
Touch receptors:
Ruffini Endings
warmth
Broadbent's concept of selective attention
all-or-nothing
stim either passes through "filter" and is perceived or does not