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9 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Reversible Causes of Dementia/ Cognitive Deficits
Reversible Causes of Dementia/ Cognitive Deficits:-
- Mass lesions of the brain (hematoma, tumor)
- Normal Pressure Hyrocephalus
- Collagen Vascular Diseases
- Hypothyroid
- wilson's Disease
- Neurosyphilis (3? Syphilis affecting brain & spinal cord)
- Vitamin deficiency (B12, folate)
Cholinergic Deficits in VaD and AD
Cholinergic Deficits in VaD and AD

- ↓ acetylcholine synthesis
- ↓ acetylcholine levels in cerebrospinal fluids
- CAUTION!
DO NOT give (or give with caution) anticholinergic medications, e.g. benadryl/diphenhydramine, cogentin/benzotropine etc to elderly patients
The Diagnosis Process for AD
(on living person)
Diagnosis Process of AD

- Med Hx
- PE, labs
- PersonaI interview with pt & caregiver
- MMSE
_ functional status assessment, eg. Physical Self Maintenance Scale PSMS
- Brain scans
Based on progression of sx over time, a dx is made and care & planning & tx begins
Reversible Causes of Dementia/ Cognitive Deficits
Reversible Causes of Dementia/ Cognitive Deficits:-
- Mass lesions of the brain (hematoma, tumor)
- Normal Pressure Hyrocephalus
- Collagen Vascular Diseases
- Hypothyroid
- wilson's Disease
- Neurosyphilis (3? Syphilis affecting brain & spinal cord)
- Vitamin deficiency (B12, folate)
Cholinergic Deficits in VaD and AD
Cholinergic Deficits in VaD and AD

- ↓ acetylcholine synthesis
- ↓ acetylcholine levels in cerebrospinal fluids
- CAUTION!
DO NOT give (or give with caution) anticholinergic medications, e.g. benadryl/diphenhydramine, cogentin/benzotropine etc to elderly patients
The Diagnosis Process for AD
(on living person)
Diagnosis Process of AD

- Med Hx
- PE, labs
- PersonaI interview with pt & caregiver
- MMSE
- functional status assessment, eg. Physical Self Maintenance Scale PSMS
- Brain scans
Based on progression of sx over time, a dx is made and care & planning & tx begins
Transmitter systems in AD
Transmitter Systems in AD
- 2 neurotransmitter systems have been well characterized for their importance in learning & memory, & as potential targets for AD treatment intervention:
Acetylcholine:
Acetylcholine:

- loss of cholinergic neurons in AD
- theory: increase available acetylcholine to improve or maintain cognitive fn
- rationale for use of acetylcholinerase inhibitors (AChEIs)
Role of Glutamate in AD
Role of Glutamate in AD:

- the normal activity of the neurotransmitter glutamate plays an integral role in the neural pathways associated with learning and memory

- in AD, abnormal glutamatergic activity can cause neuronal toxicity & impair learning