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62 Cards in this Set

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Psychotheraphy
use psychological techniques to treat personality and behavior disorders
INSIGHT oriented therapies
Goal = develop awareness and understanding of one's own feelings, motivations, and actions in the hope that this will help them adjust.

1. psychoanalysis
2. client centered therapy
Psychoanalysis
Bring hidden unconscious childhood conflicts to consciousness

Techniques:
Free associations
Dream interpretation
Analysis of Transference
Client Centered Therapy
(humanistic theory influence)

Carl rogers - Gives client a more active and equal role to therapist

Try to understand from teh client's point of view

nondirective approach - therapist doesn't offer interpretations of why clients feel as they do
Therapist doesn't suggest directions on how client may better handle problems
Therapist shows unconditional positive regard for client

Therapy goals - develop self-awareness, self acceptance, and self determination
Behavior therapies
classical conditioning (desensitization, extinction, aversive conditioning - antabuse)
operant conditioning (behavior contracting, token economy)
modelling
Cognitive therapies
1. Stress innoculation therapy (Meichenbaum) - client is taught to suppress negative, anxiety evoking thoughts and to replace them with positive "coping" thoughts
I.e. substitute a secure thought for an insecure thought

2. Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) - Albert Ellis - teach client to recognize and change irrational self defeating beliefs
Group Therapy
support groups
family therapy
marital therapy
biological treatments
A. Drug Therapies
1. antipsychotic meds (clozaril for schizophrenia)
2. AntiAnxiety
3. Antidepressant Meds (Lithium for bipolar disorder)

B. Psychosurgery

C. Electroconvulsive Therapy
Eclectic Therapy Approach
use ideas and therapy techniques from a variety of schools. Choose the approach that is most appropriate

-used my most clinical psychologists
Mental Illness
term used for a group of disorders causing severe disturbances in thinking, feeling, and relating

they result in substantially diminished capacity for coping with the ordinary demands of life

the symptoms must represent a serious departure from the prevailing social and cultural norms

-anyone can develop one
abnormal behavior
much of it is simply normal behavior greatly exaggerated or displayed in inappropriate situations

normal and abnormal often differ in degree

there is a continuum from normal to abnormal
can mental illness be prevented or cured
No effective prevention

no cures
*but treatments can substantially improve the functioning of people with these disorders
Mental illness and Mental retardation
they are NOT the same

mentally ill usually have NORMAL intelligence

althought they may have difficulty performing at a normal level due to their illness
Length of Mental Illness
mental illness if often TEMPORARY in nature

a previously well adjusted individual may have an episode of illness lasting weeks or months adn then may go for years, even a lifetime, without further difficulty
How many suffering from mental illness go untreated
only one in 5 ppl who haev mental disorder seek help

only 4-15% of children suffering serious mental illness receive approrpriate treatment
criteria for distinguising normality vs. abnormality
1. subjective discomfort
2. distorted perception of reality
3. bizaree or inappropriate behavior
4. dangerous to self or others
5. inability to cope with demands of daily functioning
Psychotic/Psychosis
involves a loss of contact with reality

delusions - false beliefs (paranoid delusions or delusions of grandeur)

hallucinations - false sensory experiences (auditory - hear voices- most common)

psychosis may be substance induced or caused by brain injury, but most psychosis appears in the form of schizophrenia
models of abnormal behavior
1. biological/medical model
2. psychoanalytic model
3. cognitive behavioral model
4. diathesis stress model
5. humanistic model
6. biopsychosocial model
biological/medical model
view abnormal behavior as "disease" or illness rooted in physiological causes

genetic and biochemical causes

ex. neurotransmitters/hormones/ brain damage

requires MEDICAL TREATMENT
psychoanalytic model
abnormal behavior is a:
symbolic expression of unresolved unconscious conflicts that have their origin in early childhood

views abnormal behavior as stemming from childhood conflicts over opposing wishes regarding sex and aggression
behavioral perspective
view abnormal behavior as a learned response

learned INAPPROPRIATE or MALADAPTIVE behavior or failed to learn appropriate behavior

treatment - reinforce/shape/model appropriate adaptive behavior and extinguish inappropriate maladaptive behavior
cognitive perspective
assumes the cognitions (Peoples thougths and beliefs) are central to a persons abnormal behavior

our beliefs, expectiations, & perceptiong of events determines how we feel and how we act
diathesis stress model
diathesis = predisposition to illness

biological factors may predispose a person to illness

possessing the diathesis for a disorder increases a persons chance of devloping it, but does not guarantee that a disorder will develop

environmental stressors transform this potential into an actual disorder

predisposition X stress interaction
Humanistic model
(self actualization)

conditional acceptance causes the person to develop a distorted self concept and worldview

treatment: nondirective therapist shows unconditional positive regard, genuineness, and empathic udnerstanding

therapy goals: develop self awareness, self acceptance, and self determination
sociocultural perspective
makes the assumption that people's behavior -both normal and abnormal - is shaped by the kind of family group, society, and culture
biopsychosocial model
= systems model
classifying abnormal behavior
the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition (DSM IV R) is the standard system used in the US to diagnose and classify abnormal behavior

utilizes 5 axes to describe condition..designed to be primarliy descriptive

atheoretical - tries to avoid suggesting an underlying cause for an individuals behavior and problems
diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM IV R)
1. observable, behavioral diagnostic criteria
aids reliability in making diagnosis (i.e. improves agreement among diagnosticians)

2. merely describes disorders and indicates the typical course for each disorder

it does not attempt to provide a theoretical explanation of what caused the disorder = atheoretical
diagnostic label
A. benefits of labelling
1. may help in selecting appropriate treatment
2. helps communications needed in doing reserach

B. Potential problems of labelling
1. may influence the way a person is perceived and treated by others
2. may also effect how a person views themselves

problems of stigma and self fullfilling prophecy

you might become guarded adn suspicious lest someone recognize your disorder..or you might be chronically on edge, fearing the onset of another episode
Mood or affective disorders
1. major depression
2. bipolar disorder (manic depressive disorder)
people who experience extremes of mood - deep depression or wild elation for long periods of time

or shit from one extreme to the other

or when these moods are not consistent with events
Major depression
most commonly diagnosed emotional problem

2-3 times more common in women vs. men

symptoms:
affective
cognitive
behavioral

only when depression is serious, lasting, and well beyond the typical reaction to a stressful life event it it classified as a mood disorder
depression in college students
11.8% in college tsudents (14.3% females; 7.3% males)

5.2% in the general population (7.4 females; 2.8 males)

college students frequently feel overwhelmved
45% said felt depressed w/ in last school year
Link b/w substance abuse and depression
-frequently co-occur
-smokers and alcohol abusers more liekly to be depressed
-individuals w/ depression more liely to abuse marijuana and become dependent

explaining the link:
-substance abuse as a means of self medication
-depression as a result of physiological and social effects of frequent substance use
-shared genetic risks
-dysfuctional faimly evnironment
-life stress
recovery of depression
-most ppl return to a normal or nearly normal mood when their depression lifts

about 1/2 of ppl w/ unipolar depression recover w/in 6 weeks, and 90% w/in a year

great majority of ppl with major depression have repeated episodes of depression later in their lives

over the course of a lifetime, the average person with major depression can expect to have 4 episodes
bipolar disorder
=manic depressive disorder

much less common vs major depression

equally prevalent in men and women

has a strong biological component than in major depression
causes of mood disorders
1. biological factors
A. genetics -plays a role in bipolar disorder
B. chemical imbalances in brain - antidepressant medication restores a chemical balance effect neurotransmitter level
2. psychological factors
A. cognitive factors - irrational thoughts - cognitive trian
3. social factors
link b/w depression and troubled close relationships, poverty, social unrest, family chaos
cognitive triad
(in depression)

negative view of self

negative view of the world

negative view of the future
who is at risk for depression
1. genetic susceptibility
2. difficult family environment
3. negative attributional style
4. poor problem solving skills
5. loneliness
6. lifestyle changes and stress
why females at greater risk for depression
history of physical or sexual abuse
less adaptive coping and problem solving skills
greater dissatisfaction with body image
stereotypical female traits (low self confidence or assertiveness)
dissorders that commonly co occur with depression in college students
anxiety disorders
eating disorders
substance abuse

students w/ co occurring disorders expreience greater impairment and are more difficult to treat
anxiety disorders & types
anxiety is very intense, long standing, or disruptive

person doesn't know why they are afraid or their anxiety is inappropriate to the situation

types:
1. phobic disorders
2. generalized anxiety disorder
3. panic disorder
4. obsessive compulive disorder
5. post traumatic stress disorder
phobi disorders
persistent, excessive, unreasonable fear of a specific object or situation

panic and are terrified when exposed to feared stimulus so they avoid the feared stimulus

phobic person usually realizes their fear is unreasonable and makes no sense but they cant keep it form interfering with their daily life

more common in women

public speaking = most common phobia
genearlized anxiety disorder
persistent, chrnoic, excessive long lasting anxiety

not focused on any particular object or situation - free floating anxiety
panic disorder
sudden attack of intense fear or terror without any reasonable identifiable cause
obsessive compulsive disorder
OCD
obsessions - involuntary thoughts or ideas that reoccur despite person's attempts to stop them = intrusive thoughts

(common obsession = contamination & violent or sexual thoughts)

compulsions - repetitive, ritualistic behaviors that the person feels compelled to perform
ex. repetitive handwashing, checking, or counting behaviors

if person tries to stop compulsive behavior they typically experience increased anxiety

ocd tend to run in families
post traumatic stress disorder
PTSD
following a trauma - anxiety symptoms may appear days, wks, yrs later
symptoms include: reliving event in dreams and vivid memories
-flashbacks, irritability, guilt
-difficulty relating emotionally to others
-substance abuse
-avoid stimuli that remind them of traumatic event
dissociative disorders
some aspect of personality seems separate from teh rest

Types: dissociative amnesia - loss of memory for past without organic cause
2. dissociative fugue - involves flight from home - assumption of a new identity - with amnesia for past identity and events
3. dissociative identity disorder (DID) = multiple personality disorder IS NOT same as schizophrenia

most cases are associated with early childhood sexual abuse

DID is associated w/ a high level of hypnotizability
personality disorders
involves inflexible and maladaptive
ways of thinking and behaving
pattern is stable (over time and across situations) and long lasting - highly resistant to change

learned early in life - its onset can be traced back at least to adolescence or early adulthood

it produces significant distress or impairment

the behavior deviates from the social and behavioral expections of the individual's culture
types of personality disorders
1. paranoid
2. dependent
3. narcissistic
4. borderline
5. antisocial
schizophrenia/symptoms
-very greatly and so do its triggers, course, and response to treatment

schiz b/c chronic in 1/2 ppl who ezperience a schizo episode

about 1/4 recover completely

about 1/4 experience recurrent episodes but are able to function w/ minimal impairment

symptoms:
1. loss of contact with reality
2. disordered thoughts, communications
3. inappropriate emotions
4. bizarre behavior
post traumatic stress disorder
PTSD
following a trauma - anxiety symptoms may appear days, wks, yrs later
symptoms include: reliving event in dreams and vivid memories
-flashbacks, irritability, guilt
-difficulty relating emotionally to others
-substance abuse
-avoid stimuli that remind them of traumatic event
dissociative disorders
some aspect of personality seems separate from teh rest

Types: dissociative amnesia - loss of memory for past without organic cause
2. dissociative fugue - involves flight from home - assumption of a new identity - with amnesia for past identity and events
3. dissociative identity disorder (DID) = multiple personality disorder IS NOT same as schizophrenia

most cases are associated with early childhood sexual abuse

DID is associated w/ a high level of hypnotizability
personality disorders
involves inflexible and maladaptive
ways of thinking and behaving
pattern is stable (over time and across situations) and long lasting - highly resistant to change

learned early in life - its onset can be traced back at least to adolescence or early adulthood

it produces significant distress or impairment

the behavior deviates from the social and behavioral expections of the individual's culture
types of personality disorders
1. paranoid
2. dependent
3. narcissistic
4. borderline
5. antisocial
schizophrenia/symptoms
-very greatly and so do its triggers, course, and response to treatment

schiz b/c chronic in 1/2 ppl who ezperience a schizo episode

about 1/4 recover completely

about 1/4 experience recurrent episodes but are able to function w/ minimal impairment

symptoms:
1. loss of contact with reality
2. disordered thoughts, communications
3. inappropriate emotions
4. bizarre behavior
loss of contact with reality
hallucinations

delusions
disordered thoguhts, communications
loosening of associations

incoherence

clang associations

neologisms
inappropriate emotions
blunted or flat affect

inappropriate shifts in mood
bizarre behavior
marked hyperactively or inactivity

bizarre repetitive behaviors
other symptoms of schizophrenia
-loss of volition (no motivation, no energy, no goal directed behavior)

-social withdrawal

-poverty of speech - reduction in speech or speech content
schizophrenia diagnostic criteria
1. symptoms lasting at least 6 months
2. not due to direct physiological effects of drug abuse or medication or general medical condition
3. must show deterioration in work, social relations, and ability to care for themselves
shizophrenia facts
occurs in 1 in 100 ppl

most cases appear b/w 16-25 years

occurence after 40 is rare

80% relapse rate when medication is discontinued

appears in all socioeconomic groups (but more frequently in the lower levels - may be "downward drift" since cant function)

equal numbers of men and women are affected

for men the disorder often begins earlier and is more severe

associated with an increased risk of suicide

-1/4 recover completely - majority continue to have at least some residiual problems for the rest of their lives

fuller recovery more likely in ppl who:
functioned quite well b4 the disorder (had good premorbid functioning)
or whose disorder was: first triggered by stress, came on abruptly, or developed during middle age