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165 Cards in this Set

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individual difference
the way in which people differ i behavior
types of individual differences
Types of Individual Differences:
• Inter-individual differences-differences between
individuals or groups
– E.g., gender differences, race differences, age
differences
• Intra-individual differences-Differences within
an individual
psychometrics
concerned with measurement of behavior and capacities through the development of psychological tests
Tests of individual differences:
menal ability?
personality?
Mental Ability Tests
–measure or describe an individual’s general
mental ability or intellectual potential.
–3 broad categories: achievement, aptitude,
intelligence

Personality Tests
–Measure various aspects of personality
including motives, interests, values, and
attitudes
–More than 500 different tests
mental ability tests:
achievement
intellegence
apttitute
Achievement
–Gauge a person’s mastery and knowledge of
various subject

Intelligence
–Measure general mental ability
–Intellectual potential rather than accumulated
knowledge

Aptitude
–Assess specific types of mental abilities
–Break mental ability into separate components
what are some issues with mental testing?
- measurement: normal distribution and correlation coefficient
- reliability
-validity
-stadardizing and norming
individual difference
the way in which people differ i behavior
function of the normal curve
For a given trait, behavior, or cognitive process,
individuals may differ considerably
• The normal distribution(curve) is a
symmetric, bell-shaped curve that represents the
pattern in which many human characteristics are
dispersed in the population
types of individual differences
Types of Individual Differences:
• Inter-individual differences-differences between
individuals or groups
– E.g., gender differences, race differences, age
differences
• Intra-individual differences-Differences within
an individual
measures of center --> normal curve
-mean
-mode
-median
-mean: average of all values
-mode: most common value
-median: the value at the center of the distribution
variability
--standard deviation
variability represtnts how much scores depart from the mean
-SD: index of variability
percentile scores
b/c of normal curve, you can translate into precentile scores --> the amount of people who scored at or below your score; this is the backbone of most psych. test
correlation
--correltation coefficient
statistical measure of the degree of linear relatioship between two variables
corr. coeff.: (r), ranges from -1(inversely related) to +1(directly related)
* postive correlation
* negative correltation
* zero correlation
*postive: r=+1 if perfectly linear, increase in x=increase in y
.
.
.
.
* negative correlation: increase in x=decrease in y
r=-1 if perfectly linear
.
.
.
* zero correlation: no reltationship between variables
r=0
reliability
--methods of assessing relaibility
reliability: consistancy of measurement
--test-retest: compare the subjects scores on two administrations of a test (ex.: form a and b)
-- alernate forms: different tests that arematched in content and difficulty
-- split-half relaibilty: comparing performance in half a test to that of the other half
reliability coefficient
correltion between two measures of the test
--between test and retest
between alternate forms
--between odd and even items on a test
validity
--types of validity
validity: the extent to which a test measures what is it supposed to measure
--content: degree to which the content of a test is representive of the domain it is supposed to cover
--contruct: theoretical issue; does the test accurtately measure the itnended hypothetical construct?
--predictive: does the test predict performance (ex.: SAT score vs. GPA)
in order for psych. test to be meaningful...
they need to be informative about a persons score relative to others --> it must be standardized and test norms must be computed
standardization
using the same procedures and scoring rules for everyone
test norms (norming)
--percentile scores
--standardization sample
provide information about where a test scores ranks in relation to other scores on that test
--percentile scores: % percent of people scoring at or below the score one has obtained
--standardization sample: smaple of people that the norms are based on
Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911)
- believed that intellence is passed from generation to generation
- thought that the mind was made up of elementary senstions and because of this, more intellegent individuals should exhibit exceptional sensory acuity
- devised a correltation preocedure to test his ideas
- his theory was a FAILURE!
binet-simon test
-devised by binet and and simon to measure intellectual development in children (1905)
-1st modern intellgence test
-test verbal reasoning
-devised mental age (MA)
Stanford-Binet intellegence scale (1916)
-similar to the binet-simon test
-allowed for comparisons of test scores amoung children
-devised the intellegnce quotient
-centered at 100
IQ formula
IQ = (MA/CA) x 100
Wechsler Adult Intellegence Scale (WAIS)
-stanford-binet not appropriate for adults
-david wechsler (1955) was the first to devise a test to measure intellegence in adults
-more emphasis on nonverbal reasoning
WAIS and the deviation IQ score
-wechsler realized the inadequacy of expressing intellegence as a quotient
-he developed the deviation IQ score --> locate subjects precisely within the normal distribution using standard deviation as the unit of measure
--mean IQ:100
--standard deviation: 15
modern intellegence testing
-testing is similar the other methods discussed
-updated versions of stanford-binet and WAIS are in use today (both use deviation scores rather than quotients)
-many other tests besides these are used to discuss intellegence today
mental retardation
sub-average intellectual and adaptive functioning, originating before age 18
-IQ scores more than 2 SDs from the average (IQ under 70)
-2-3% of school age population diagnosed
-flexbile cutoffs scores
-subjective methods of measuring everyday functioning
causes of mental retardation
-organic/genetic: fewere than 25% of cases have a clear organic cause (ex.: down syndrome, hydrocephaly)
-unkown orgin: enviromental issues; milder forms of mental retardation can often be attributed to damage during the birth process, a hard injury, in utero exposure to alcohol or cocaine
social classes and mental retardation
--severe forms are evenly distributed across social classes (suggests that severe retardation is the product of biological factors)
--mild retardation is elevated in lower social classes (suggests that mild retardation is largely a product of unfavorable environmental factors)
giftedness
--gifted individuals (exp. children) are typically identified as those in the upper 2-3% of the IQ distribution)
--identification of the gifted should not be based on test scores alone (things such as leadership, creativity, or special talent should also be taken into account --> BUT it is typically identified throught IQ tests)
--gifted people are often stereotyped as socially inept, sickly, or weak
Terman (1921)
longitudinal study of gifted children
-psych's longest running study
-1500 kids with an average IQ of 150
--better than average physical, emotional, and social development
---BUT!, may depend on level of giftedness:
-moderately gifted (130-150):fine
-profoundly gifted (180+): social and emotional problems
-terman's children all grew up to be successful, but non achieved recognition for genuis level contributions
-
Renzulli (1986)
propsed that intellence is only one factor that determines ones greatness
--interaction of these 3 things:
1. high intellegence
2. high motivation
3. high creativity
Giftedness: innate or due to hardwork?
--drudge theory
drudge theory: giftedness of a person is due to tireless hardwork, practice, and training
-->confound: those with innate talents are more likely to exert the energy to train and practice
Sternberg et al. (1981)
-layperson's view on intellegnce
-participants were asked to list examples of behaviors characteristic of intellegence
-results indicated that people concieve 3 kinds of intellegence
--verbal
--practical
--social
approaches to intellegence
psychometric, information-processing, multiple intellegences
psychometric approach
--factor analysis
statsitcal techniques used to definte intellectual skills of abilities
-one statistical approach is factor analysis: looks for items that correlate together (are a common factor), factors are named based on how the correltions pan out
Factor anaysis and theories of intellegence:
Spearman (1904)
-factor analysis allows extraction of a factor that is shared among a variet of intellegence tasks
-spearman porposed that one factor best described an individuals intellegence
-2 factor theory: g + specific
general intellegence (G)
general mental ability which underlies all cognitive abilities, "mental energy"
factor analysis and theories of intellegence:
Thurstone (1938)
* claimed that there was no "g"
* proposed 7 factors underlying mental intellegence --> primary mental abilities
1. word affluency
2. verbal comprehension
3. spatial ability
4. perceptual speed
5. numerical ability
6. inductive reasoning
7. memory
factor analysis and theories of intellegence:
Guilford (1956)
- propsed 150 distinct mental abilities
- these mental abilities were characterized in terms of operations, contents, products
factor analysis and theories of intellegence:
Cattell and Horn's gf and gc
* cattell and horn proposed that spearman's g should be divided into dluid intellegence and crystal intellegence
-fluid (gf): reasoning ability, memory capacity, and information processing
-crysalized (gc): ability to apply acquired knowledge and skills in problem solving
* gf and gc have had influence on intellegence tests
mental retardation
sub-average intellectual and adaptive functioning, originating before age 18
-IQ scores more than 2 SDs from the average (IQ under 70)
-2-3% of school age population diagnosed
-flexbile cutoffs scores
-subjective methods of measuring everyday functioning
causes of mental retardation
-organic/genetic: fewere than 25% of cases have a clear organic cause (ex.: down syndrome, hydrocephaly)
-unkown orgin: enviromental issues; milder forms of mental retardation can often be attributed to damage during the birth process, a hard injury, in utero exposure to alcohol or cocaine
social classes and mental retardation
--severe forms are evenly distributed across social classes (suggests that severe retardation is the product of biological factors)
--mild retardation is elevated in lower social classes (suggests that mild retardation is largely a product of unfavorable environmental factors)
giftedness
--gifted individuals (exp. children) are typically identified as those in the upper 2-3% of the IQ distribution)
--identification of the gifted should not be based on test scores alone (things such as leadership, creativity, or special talent should also be taken into account --> BUT it is typically identified throught IQ tests)
--gifted people are often stereotyped as socially inept, sickly, or weak
Terman (1921)
longitudinal study of gifted children
-psych's longest running study
-1500 kids with an average IQ of 150
--better than average physical, emotional, and social development
---BUT!, may depend on level of giftedness:
-moderately gifted (130-150):fine
-profoundly gifted (180+): social and emotional problems
-terman's children all grew up to be successful, but non achieved recognition for genuis level contributions
-
Renzulli (1986)
propsed that intellence is only one factor that determines ones greatness
--interaction of these 3 things:
1. high intellegence
2. high motivation
3. high creativity
Giftedness: innate or due to hardwork?
--drudge theory
drudge theory: giftedness of a person is due to tireless hardwork, practice, and training
-->confound: those with innate talents are more likely to exert the energy to train and practice
Sternberg et al. (1981)
-layperson's view on intellegnce
-participants were asked to list examples of behaviors characteristic of intellegence
-results indicated that people concieve 3 kinds of intellegence
--verbal
--practical
--social
approaches to intellegence
psychometric, information-processing, multiple intellegences
psychometric approach
--factor analysis
statsitcal techniques used to definte intellectual skills of abilities
-one statistical approach is factor analysis: looks for items that correlate together (are a common factor), factors are named based on how the correltions pan out
Factor anaysis and theories of intellegence:
Spearman (1904)
-factor analysis allows extraction of a factor that is shared among a variet of intellegence tasks
-spearman porposed that one factor best described an individuals intellegence
-2 factor theory: g + specific
general intellegence (G)
general mental ability which underlies all cognitive abilities, "mental energy"
factor analysis and theories of intellegence:
Thurstone (1938)
* claimed that there was no "g"
* proposed 7 factors underlying mental intellegence --> primary mental abilities
1. word affluency
2. verbal comprehension
3. spatial ability
4. perceptual speed
5. numerical ability
6. inductive reasoning
7. memory
factor analysis and theories of intellegence:
Guilford (1956)
- propsed 150 distinct mental abilities
- these mental abilities were characterized in terms of operations, contents, products
factor analysis and theories of intellegence:
Cattell and Horn's gf and gc
* cattell and horn proposed that spearman's g should be divided into dluid intellegence and crystal intellegence
-fluid (gf): reasoning ability, memory capacity, and information processing
-crysalized (gc): ability to apply acquired knowledge and skills in problem solving
* gf and gc have had influence on intellegence tests
heritibility of IQ
can genetic variation explain variaiton in IQ scores?
-twin studies: compare IQ in monozygotic and dizygotic twins
-adoption studies: compare similarity of IQ scores of sdoped childen with adopted family and biological family

--results suggest a heavy influence of genetics of individual IQ scores (but also environment)
heritibility ratio
an estimate of the proportion of trait variability in a population that is determined by variations in genetic inheritance

esimtate of h fall between .4 and .7

H does apply to all people
environment and IQ
adoption studies suggest that children reared together are more similar than those reared apart
Flynn effect (1987, 1994, 1999)
importance of environmental influences on IQ
--IQ scores have been steadily rising for the last 70 years
--cant be due to genetics
-reasons: better nutirition, better schooling, more educated parents
interaction of heredity and environment
--reaction range
heredity and environment both have an influence on intellegence

it has been proposed that heredity sets certain limits on intellegence and the environment determines where in that range the individual falls

reaction range: the gentically determined limits on IQ
--explains why low IQ children sometimes come from good environments and high IQ children often come from bad environments
personality

purpose for research
refers to enduring patterns of thought, feeling, motivation, and behavior that are expressed in different circumstances
(consistancy and distintiveness)

the aim of personality reaseach is to contruct general theories of personality
personality tests

categories
althought there are 100s of personality tests, they generally fall into 2 categories:

stuctured: asks specific questions that require specific answers
projection: unstructured tests requiring description of some stimulus
stuctured personality tests

empirical critereon keying

problems
pose specific questions that required those being tested to give specific responses

often constructed using empircal critereon keying:
being with a large pool of questions, compare answers between a control group and some group strongly displaying a trait, use onlny questions that differntiate the two groups

problem: misrepresentation
minnesota multiphasitic personality inventory (MMPI)
compares the similarity between examinee and individuals diagnosed with certain psychologigal disorders

567 t/f items lead to scores on 10 scales

primarily for clinical diagnosis

structured test
california psychologial inventory (CPI)
non clinical assessment of personality

critereon groups were those at extreme ends of personality traits in social groups

consists of 434 t/f questions

widely used with employee selection and counseling
projective tests
assume that persons presented with a vague stimulus will ptoject their own impulses and desires into a description of the stimulus

problem: interpretation
rorschach
ink blot test

subjects are presented with an abstract inkblot and asked what they see

responses are scored according the part, attribute, or content used to describe the inkblot

projective!!
TAT
thematic appreciation test

subjects are presented with pics or drawings of scenes; subjects tell a story about the scene

responses are scored based on the subject's stories
reliability and validity of structured tests
reliability between .7 and .9

validity typically between .3 and .4
reliability and validity of projective tests
reliability is contraversial
TAT>Rorschach

low validity --> little predictive power
trait approach

personality trait
personality trait: a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations
--some traits are more basic than others and there determine other more superficial traits

like intellegence, factor analysis is used to determine factors unerlying personality
mccrae and costa:
BIG 5 facors personality
O:penesses to experience
C:concientiosness
E:xtroversion
A:greeableness
N:euroticism

OCEAN!
eysenck's 2-D model
hans eysenck propsed a personlity can be accounted for by 2 major dimensions:
1.neuroticism/emotional stability
2. extroversion/inroversion
psychodynamic approach
theories include a diversity of theories descended from Freud's work --> focuses on unconscious

major contributers: freud, jung, adler

freud's theoru attempts to explain personality, motivation, and psychological disorders by focusing on early childhood experiences and the unconscious

--structure of personality
--levels of awareness
--defense mechanisms
--development of personality
psychodynmics:

structure of personality
3 componenets:

1. id: pleasure principle; instinctive; isntant gratification; house raw biological urges (eat, sleep, sex); engages in primary-process thinking: primitive illogical, irrational, and fanatasy oriented

2. ego: reality: delays gratification intil appropriate; secondary process thinking --> rational, realistic, oriented toward problem solving

3. superego: moral componentl emerges from ego around 3-5
psychodynamics:

levels of awareness
3 levels:

1. conscious: awareness

2. preconcious: just beneatj surface awareness

3. unconscious: thoughts well below the surface of awareness, but still influenve behavior

id, ego, and superego are distributed dofferently across the 3 levels of awareness

-ego and superego operate at all 3 levels
-id is entirely unconscious, but expresses its urges through the ego

iceberg analogy
psychodynamics:

conflicts and defense mechansims
freud believed that behavior is the outcome of a series of conflicts between id, ego, and superego
-particular focus on agressive and sexual impulses

sometimes conflict leads to anxiety

this discomfort may lead to the use of defense mechansisms, which may temporarily relieve anxiety
defense mechanisms
largely unconcious reactions that protect a person from anxiety; mental meneuvers that work though self deception
types of defense mechansisms
--repression: burying distressing thoughts or feelings in the unconcious
--projection: attributing ones own feelings to another
--displacement: diverting emotion feelings from original source to a substitute target
--repression: burying distressing thoughts and feelings in the unconscious
--projection: attributing ones won feelings to another
--displacement: diverting emotion feeligns from orginal source to a substitute agent
--reaction formation: behaving in a way opposite how one feels
types of defense mechanisms (cont.)
-regressuib: a reversion to immature patterns in behavior
-denial: refusal to recognize reality
-rationalization: creating false but plausable excuses to justify unacceptable behavior
-identification: bolstering self-esteem by forming an imaginary alliance with some person or group
psychodynamics:

the develop of personality
psyschoanaltytic theory explains personality in terms of:
-early childhood experiences
-unconscious motives and conflicts
-the methods people use to cope with sexual and fressive urges

human bebavior is motivated by two drives
-agressive
-sexual
Freud's psychosexual stages
libido follows a developmental course during childhood

stages:
* oral (0-1): mouth; sucking, biting
* anal (2-3): anus; expelling or retaining feces
* phallic (4-5): genitals; masturbaing
* latency (6-12): nothing
* genital (puberty and on): being sexually intimate
other psychdynamic theories

Jung's analytical psychology
unconscios consists of 2 layers
-personal unconscious: repressed or forgotten material
-collective unconscious: latent memory traces inherited from one's ancestral past

first to describe introversion
other psychdynamic theories

Adler's individual psychology
said that the primary source of motivation in life is stricing for superiority

-compensation: trying to overcome feelings of inferiority by developing ones abilities
--inferiority complex
--birth order
evaluating psychodynmaic persepectives

pros and cons
pros:
-insights regerding:
* the unconscious
* the role of internal conflict
* the importance of early childhood experience

cons:
-poor testability
-inadaquate empiracal base
-sexist views
behavorist approach

skinner's views of personality
-operant conditioning: fully determined by environmental stimuli

-personality: a collection of response tendencies that are tied to various stimulus situations
--either strengthened or weakened by new experiences mechanically
--no stages a constinuous lifelong process
--no emphasis on childhood experience

behaviorists view personality as a collection of response tendencies

personlities shaped by reinforcers and other things that follow behavior
behaviorist approach

bandura's social cognitive theory
conditioning is not mechanical

social cognitive personality theory places emphasis on learned aspects of personality as well as expectations and beliefs of the person

observational learning models
behaviorist approach

bandura's social conitive theory

--reciporocal determintism
the idea that internal mental events, external environmental events, and overt behavior all influence eachother
humanstic approach
humanistic theorists reject the behaviorist and psychodynmaic notions of personality

they emphasize the notion that each person has a potential for creative growth

assumes: people can rise above biological urges, people are conscious, rational beings

embraces the phenomenological approach
humanistic approach
--maslow's theory of self-actualization
human motives are organized into a hierarchy of needs in which basic needs must be met before less basic needs (growth) are aroused

need for self actualization-the highest need in the heirarchy - the need to fulfill ones potential

self actualized persons have actualized personalities and continued personal growth
(tuned into reality, at peace with themselves, open and spontaneous, sensitive to other's needs, not dependend on others for approval, have more emotional highs than others)
genetics of personlity
biological relatices are more similar in personality then strangers

twins reaies together and apart provide evidence for a genetic aspect of personlity
psychopathology
the study of the origin, development, and manifestations of mental or behavoral disorders

aka abnormal psych
ancient view of abnormal behavior
demonology: hisoritically psychopathological disorders and abnormal behaviors were viewed as demonic possessions
modern view of abnormal behavior
medical model --> it is classified as a disease
-diagnosis
-etiology
-prognosis
3 critera of abnormal behavior
deviant: deviating from social norms

maladaptive: impairment in everyday life
causing personal distress: self reportof great personal distress
boundary between normal and abnormal behavior
there is no clear boudary, but rather a continuum
who classifies psych. disorders?
the american psychiatiric assosciation
axis system
diagnostics and statistical manual of mental disoreders (4th ed.)

5 axis:
axis I: clincal syndromes
axis II: personality disorders and mental retardation
axis III: general medical conditions
axis IV: psychosocial and environmental problems
axis V: global assessment of functioning
epidemiology
the study of the distribution of mental of pysical disorders in the popultation
prevalance
percentage of a population that exhibits a disorder during a specific time period
limetime prevalance
percetage of people who have been daignosed with a specific disorder at any time in their lives
sterotypes about psychologial disorders
1. psychological disorders are incurable --> actually most people do improve and lead productive lives
2. people with disorders are violent and dangerous --> only a modest correlation b/t mental illness and violence
3. people with disoders behave in bizarre ways and are very different from "normals" --> most people are indistinguishable,
anxiety disorders

--the 4 types
a class of disorders maked be feelings of excessive apprehension or anxiety

4 major types:
1. generealized anxiety disorder
2. phobic disorder
3. panic disorder
4. obsessive compulsive disorder`
generalized anxiety disorder
choronic, high-level of anxiety not tied to any specific threat; "free-floating anxiety", worry constantly about yesterday's mistakes and tomorrow's problems, anxiety accompanied by physical symptoms, gradual onset, more prevalent in females
phobic disorders

--common types
anxiety is tied to a specific stimulus, persistant and irrational fear of an object of situation that presents no realisitic danger, accompanied by physical symptoms, mild phobias are very common, only disoder where fears seriously interfere with everyday behavior

common phobias:
-acrophobia
-agoraphobia
-arachnophobia
-claustrophobia
-brontophobia
-xenophobia
panic disorder
recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occur suddenly and unexpectedly, often leads to agoraphobia, onset usually late teens or early adulthood, 2/3 of cases are female
obsessive compulsive disorder
persistant, uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted thought (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions)
-obsessions: often focus on inflicting harm on others, personal failures, suicide, or sexual acts
- compulsions: involve rituals that temporarily relieve axiety

2.5% of the population; most emerge before age 35
etiology and anxiety disorders
-biological factors
-conditioning and learning
biological factors: genetic disposition
- more often seen in MZ than DZ twins
-GABA circuits in the brain

conditioning and learning: acquired through classical condition or observational learning (preparedness); maintained through operant conditioning
psychologists
clinical psychologists: trained to deal with full feldged disorers
counseling psychologists: trained to deal with everyday adjustmenment problems

these doctors are most often used
psychiatrists
pysicians trained to daignose and treat psych. disorders; more likely to use drug therapies
other mental health workers
clinical social workers
psychiatric nurses
counselors
Insight therapies
involve verbal interactions intended to enhance clients' self knowledge and promote healthful changes in personality and behavior

major approaches:
-psychoanalysis
-cognitive therapy
-group therapy
psychoanalysis
an insight therapy that emphasizes the recovery of unconscious conflicts, motives, and defenses

freud

goal: to discover unresolved uconscious conflicts
psychoanalysis methods
free association: clients spontaneously express thoughts and feelins exactly as they occur without censorship

dream analysis: the therapist interprets the symobolic meaning of client's dreams

transference: when clients unconsciously start relating to their therapist in ways that mimic critical relationships in their lives
issues with psychoanalysis
issues:

interpretation: the therapists attempt to explain the inner significance of the clients thoughts, feelings, memories, and behaviors (slow)

resistance: largely unconscious defense manuvers intended to hinder the process of therapy

modern psychoanalysis
cognitive therapy
an insight therapy that emphasizes recognizing and changing negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs

goal: to change how clients think
cognitive therapy methods
detect and recognize negative thoughts

reality teting

homework
group therapy
the simultaneous treatment of several clients in a group, 4-15 being ideal, carefully selected by the therapaist so that each may effectively serve as therapists to others; can help clients realize that misery is not unique and help them become healthier to win the groups approval
evaluating insight therapy
difficult to gauge efficacy

superior to no treatment at all or to placebo treatment; effects of treatment are durable

some critics arue that all therapists share certain comon factors that account for all the progress clients make in therapy
behavior therapies:
apply the principles of learning and condiioning to change maladaptive behavior

classical conditioning,operant conditioning, observational learning,

assumption: behavior is a product of learning, and that what is leaned can be unlearned

approches
systematic dsensitation
aversion therapy
social skills training
systematic desensitization
behavior therapy that reduces anxiety responses through counterconditioning
(ex.: treatment of phobias)

3 steps
1. anxiety hierarchy
2. deep muscle relaxation
4 work through the heirarcy
aversion therapy
an aversive stimulus is paired with a stimiulus which elicits an undersirable response
(ex.: substance abuse, gambling, etc.)

contraversial and not widely used
social skills traning
berhavior therapy; is the improvement of interpersonal skills using the principles of operant conditioning and oberservational learning

useful in treating social ineptitude arrising from social anxiety, autism, schizophrenia

methods:
modeling
behavioral rehearsal
shaping
biological theories
psychosurgery
psychopharmacotherapy
full-spectrum light therapy
ECT
rTMS
psychosurgery
refers to the intentional damage of the brain to alter behavior


lobotomoy: damage to the frontal lobe, camls agressive behavior, popular in the 30s, 40, 50s; not practiced today

NOT nuerosurgery
psychopharmacotherapy (drug therapy)
the treatment of mental disorder with meidcation

categories:
antianxiety
antipsychotic
antideressent
mood stabalizers
antianxiety medications
increase activity of the GABA transmitter to dampen nueral activity in the brain (ex.: valium)

can result in drug dependence and withdrawl
antipsychotic medication
refers to the drugs that alleviate schizophrenia; decrease activity of dopamine in the synapse; gradually reduce symptoms includin hyperactivity mental cofusion and delusions for a few months

ex.: thorazine

prior to 1856, schizophrenia was untreatable with many people confined to mental hospitals for life

chlorpromazine (thorazine) was found to reduce severity of psychotic thought, allowig people to live outside of mental hospitals
antidepressent drugs
lift depression by affecting the action of the neurotrasmittersnoephrine and serotonin

treatment of unopolar disorder, require 3-4 weeks for affect
mood stabalizers
used to control mood swings in patients with bipolar disorder; can prevent manic episides, can aid in bringing patients out of current manic episodes

ex.: lithium, valporic acid
full spectrum light therapy
used to treat seasonal affective disorder


SAD lamps
electroconvulsive therapy
used if a person is at risk for suicide and there is not time to wait for anti depressents to take affect; refers to the intentional induction of a brain seizure by shock adminitstered to either or both hemispheres
repetitive transcranial manetic stimulation
strong magnetic field pulsed over fronal cortex which induces nural activity; can be applies with greater persicion that ECT; avvelieates depression; side effects-seizuire and headache
somataform disorders
physical ailments that cannot be fully explained by organic conditions and are largely due to psychological factors

(ex. are not faking illness although symptoms may be imaginary)
somataform disroder:

somatization
marked by a history of diverse physical complaints that appear to be psycholoical origin

occurs mostly in women an often coexists with depression or anxiet disorders
somatoform disroder:

hypochondriasis
an excessive preoccupation with health conerns and incessant worry about developing pysical illnesses

overinterpret every possible sign of illness, often coexists with depression and anxiety disorders
somatofrom disorer:

conversion disorder
a significant loss of physical fuction, usually with no organic basis, in a single organ system

usually more severe ailments than those with somatization disorder; loss of vision, hearing, or limb function, sever laryngitis or mutism
glove anethesia
the entire hand from fingertips to wrist becomes numb
etiology of somatofrom disorders
personality factors: histrionic personliaty characteristics; self oriented, suggestible, escitable, highly emotional, nueoticism

cognitive factors: tend to draw catastopic conclusion have minor bodily complaints; have faulty standard of good health

the sick role: complaints of physical symptoms reinforced by indirect benefits derived from their illness
dissociative disorders
a class of disoerder in which people lost contact with portions of their conciousness or memory, resulting in disruptions in their sense of indentity
dissociative disorders:

dissociative amnesia
the sudden loss of memory for important personal info. that is too extensive to be due to normal forgetting; may be for a single traumatic event for an extended period;
dissociative disorders:

dissociative fugue
the loss of memory for their entire life along with their sense of personal identity; no memory of name, family, work, etc.; can still remember things unrealted to their identity (ex.: driving)
dissociative disorders:

dissociative identity disorders
the coexistance in 1 person or 2 or more largely complete and usually very different personalities

previously known as multiple personality disorder

overly diagnosed
etiology of dissociative disorders
dissociative amnesia ad fugue --> extreme stress

dissociative identity disorder:
-personality factors: fantasy proneness, absorbtion with personal experience, etc.
-role playing?: influenced by media coverage
-child sexual abuse: elevates the liklihood for many disorders
-only 1/4 american polled believe there is solid evidence for the validity of dissociative identity disorder
mood disorders
a class of disorders marked by emotional disturbances of vaired kinds that may spill over to disrupt, physical, perpetual, social, and thought processes
mood disorders:

bipolar
experience of one or more manic episodes as well as periods of depression
mood disorders:

seasonal affective disorder
sufferers experience ormal mental health throughout most of the year, but experience dperessive symptoms in winter or summer --> linked to sunlight exposure
mood disorders:

unipolar disorder
persistant feelings of sadness and despair and a loss of interest in previos sources of pleasure
etiology of mood disorders
genetic vulnerbility: concordance rates moderately low

nerochemical factors: correltion between moo disorders and abnormal nuerotransmitters in the brain;

interpersonal role: link between poor social skills and depression; depressed people tend to be depressing; fewer cources of social support than non depressed people

cognitive factors: negative thinking leads to depression; depression is caused by learned helplessness

stress
schizophrenic disorders
a class of disorders marked by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, break-down of adaptive behavior
schizophrenic disorders:

paranoid schizophrenia
dominated by delusions of persecution along with delusions of grandeur; believe that they have many enemies who want to harass them; convinced that they are being watched or manipulated
schizophrenic disorders:

disorganized schizophrenia
marked by a particular severe deteriation of adaptive behavior; emotional indifference; frequent incoherence, withdrawl
schizophrenic disorders:

catatonic schizophrenia
marked by striking disturbances from muscul regidity to random motor activity

catatonic stupor: remain virtually motionaless and seem obvious to environment
cataonic excitement: become hyperactive and incoherent
schizophrenic disorders:

undifferentiated schizophrenia
diagnosed when a person is clearly schiizophrenic but does fit into any of the other 3 kinds
etioology of schizophrenia
genetics: moderately high rates

neurochemical factors: excess dopamie; abnormal nueral ciruits using glutamate

stuctural abnormalities in the brain: enlarged venrticles; reduced or increased metabolic actiivity
etiology of schizophrenia:

nueodevelopmental hypothesis
suggests disorder is caused in part by various disruptions in the normal maturational procesess of the brain before birth (viral infections/flu, obstretical complications in birth process, prenatal malutrirtion)

stress can also set it off
personality disorders
a class of disorders marked by extreme inflexible personliaty traits that cause subjective distress or impaired social and occupational functioining; emerge during late childhood or adolescence; mild versions of more severe axis I disorders; daignostic problems
3 clusters
anxious/fearful: maladaptive efforts to control anxiety and fear about social rejection

odd/eccentric: distrustful, socially aloof people who cant connect with others emotionally

dramatic/impulsive: overdramatize everything or are impulsive
anxoius/fearful disorders:
avoidant personality: want acceptance from others but is excessively senstive to rejection, shame, or humilation

dependent personality: lack self-reliance and esteem; allow others to make all decisions and put their own needs second to others

obsessive compulsive: preoccupied with organization, rules, schedules; unable to be warm
odd/eccentric disorders
schizoid: cant form social relationships or expres warm feelings

schizotypal: social deficits and oddities in thinking, percetion, and communication that resemble schizophrenia

paranoid: show pervaive and unwarrented suspiciousnes and mistrust others; tend to overly sensitive and prone to jealously
darmatic/impulsive disorders:
histrionic: overly dramatic; tend to exaggerate emtional expressions; egocentric and want attention

narcisstic: grandiosely self important; preoccupied with success fantasies; expect special treatment and lack interpersonal sympathy

borderline: unstable moods, self-image, and iterpseonal relationships; impulsive and unpredictbale

antisocial: chronically violate the rights of others b/c fail to accept social norms regarding moral principles and behavior; trouble forming attatchments to others or to sustain cosistent work behavior; are exploitive and reckless
antisocial personality disorder
aka psychopathy

impulsive, callous, manipulative, aggressive, and irresponsible; rarely feel guilty; often involved in criminal activities from an early age and at a high rate; 3-4% of people suffer; most are male
who seeks psych treatment?
15% of pop.

women more than men

people with med insurance

higher educated people

people suffering from anxiety and depression