Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/92

Click to flip

92 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Steroid hormones that increase muscle mass
anabolic steroids
steroids with testosterone-like properties, masculinizing
androgenic steroids
this act classified 27 anabolic steroids as schedule III and said that they are illicit when obtained without a physicians prescription.
Anabolic Control Act 1991
Gonadoptrpoin-releasing hormone
hypothalamus
stimulates the release of luteinizing hormone (lh) and follicle stimulating hormoe (FSH)
pituitary
FSH and LH promote the development of the ovarian follicle that contians an egg and controls the timing of ovulation
ovary
FSH and LH are involved inthe production of testosterone and sperm
testes
similar in structure to testosterone and is responsible for many female sex characteristics
estradiol
cognition affected by estrogen that controls attention and memory
acetylcholine
cognition affect by estrogen that controls fine motor movements
dopamine
cognitino affected by estrogen that controls mood and depression
serotonin
cognition affected by estrogen that contorls attention and cognitino
noradrenaline
signs of dependence to steroids
withdrawal, taking more of drug than intented, spend lots of time getting/using, use despite problems
hypersecretion of growth hormones in children
gigantism
hyposecretion of growth hormones in children
dwarfism
hypersecretion of growth hormones in adults, usually caused by pituitary tumors
acromegaly
disease which casuses dementia with psychiatric/behavioral disturbances, no cure
Creutzfield-Jacob Disesase
performance enhancing changes
ergogenic
a group of hormones secreted by the adrenal glands. their anti-inflammatory action makes them useful for treating arthritis and muscular injures
adrenocortical steroids
male breasts enlarging
gynecomastia
frequent, sustained and painful penis erections caused by steroids
priapism
withdrawal symptoms from steroids
muscles shrink, depression, problems sleeping, lack of appetite, moodiness.
the variantion of the cycling patterns in steroids. starting with low doses, increase doses over several weeks before competitions, then tapering off right before to avoid drug testing
pyramiding
perception of one's own body as small and weak and one's musclature as inadequately developed despite evidence to the contrary. megorexia.
muscle dysmorphia
a condtion resulting in structural abnormalities of the head, hands, and feet, as well as damage to the internal organs
acromegaly
a dietary supplement acting as a metabolic precursor to testosterone and used as an ergogenic agent
androstenedione
how does fermentation occur
it occurs naturally when airborne yeast contacts sugary products and the yeast eats the suger and produces alcohol and CO2
prohibited the manufacture, sale, transportation/importation but not purchase of alcohol
18th amendment
made 18th amendment enforceable
volstead act 1920
Volstead Act repealed
by FDR in 1933
Absorbtion of ETOH depends on
size, gender, individual physiology and stomach content
dilated left ventricle and decreased ejection fraction, leads to congestive heart failure
cardiomyopathy
actions of alcohol in the CNS
it potentiates GABA functions and can result in reduced GABA signaling (neuroadaptations)
process of converting natural sugars into ethyl alcohol by the action of yeasts
fermentation
the process of producing beer from barley grain
brewing
barley after it has been soaked in water, sprouts have grown, sprouts removed, and the mixture has been dried and crushed into a powder
barley malt
fermented barley malt, following liquification and combination with yeasts
mash
a process by which fermented liquid is boiled and then cooled, so that the condensed product contains a higher alcoholic concentration than before
distillation
the first distilled liquor in recorded history-brandy
aqua vitae
body recognizes alcohol has no purpose so this chemical process in alcohol metabolism occurs
oxidation
enzyme in the stomach and liver that converts alcohol into acetaldehyde
alcohol dehydrogenase
an enzyme in the liver that converts acetaldehyde to acetic acid in alcohol metabolism
acetakdehyde dehydrogenase
a by product of alcohol metabolism, produced through the action of acetaldehyde dehydorgenase
acetic acid
the number of grams of alcohol in the blood relative to 100 milliliters of blood expressed as a percentage.
blood alcohol concentration
LD50 level of BAC
.50%
alcohol inhibits this hormone that acts to rabsorb water in the kidneys prior to excretion from the body
antidiuretic hormone
condition resulting from excessive reabsorbtion of water in the kidneys. causes swelling of fingers hands and feet.
antidiuresis
nonethyl alcohols, oils and organic substances found in trace amounts of some distilled spirits
congeners
experimental design that can separate psychological effects(due to subjective expectations) and physiological effects (due to pharmacology of the drug)
balanced pliacebo design
condition in which the consumption of alcohol has produced major psychological, physical, social or occupational problems
alcoholism
a pattern of alcohol consumptoin aimed at reducing stress and anxiety
symptomatic drinking
four problems with over consumption of alcohol
1) problems associated with preoccupation with drinking, 2) emotional problems, 3) vocational, social and family problems 4) probelms associated with physical health
people who try and cover up an alcoholic's problems thus keeping the alcoholic from realizing they need help. individuals whose behavior consciously or unconsciously encourages another person's continuation in a pattern of alcohol or other drug abuse
enablers (enable alcoholic to function)
Major development of the temperance movement, hated the saloon, wanted to enact ban of alcohol
Womens Christian Temperance Union
who repealed the volstead act
FDR in 1933
most common gneral reaction to stopping alcohol consumption in an alcoholic
alcohol withdrawal snydrome
symypoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome
discomfort, seizures, sleep disturbances
extreme disorientation and confusion fever, hallucinations, and other symptoms
delirium tremens (DT's)
abnormal concentration of fatty deposits inside liver cells
fatty liver
disease involving inflammation of the liver as a result of chronic alcohol abuse
alcoholic hepatitis
progressive development of scar tissue that chokes off blood vessels in the liver and destroys liver cells by interfering with the cells utilization of oxygen.
alcoholic cirrhosis
Describe Wernicke Korsakoff Syndrome
condition resulting from chronic alcohol consumption characterized by disorientation cognitive deficits amnesia and motor difficulty. deficiency in thiamine(vitamin b)
Korsakoff psychosis
can't remember info that has just been presented to hem and have patchy memory for distant events that occured prior to alcoholic state
the tendency to make up elaborate past histories to cover the fact that long term memory has been impaired
confabulation
chemical compound the fetus's lack, that breaks down alcohol and gets it out of the body
acetaldehyde
a serious condition involving mental retardation and facial cranial malformations in the offspring of an alcoholic mother
FAS
capable of prodcuing specific birth defects
teratogenic
Fetal Alcohol Effect
pretnatal or postnatal growth retardation in which the child's weight or length is below the 10th percentile, evidence of CNS abnormalities or mental retardation, a characteristic skull and facial appearance that includes a smaller than normal head, small wide set eyes drooping eyelids, a flattening of the vertical groover between the mouth and nose, thin upper lip and a short upturned nose.
a way of understanding a phenominon in terms of comples interacting relationships among individuals, family, friends, and community
systems approach
a concept that individuals who live with a person having an alcohol or other drug dependence suffer themselves from difficulties of self image and social independence
codependency
european cultivation of tabacco begins
1531
smoking banned in public places
Pope Urban VII 1642
first american tobaco factories
1730 virginia
cigarrette machines made
1881
mechanism for action of nicotine
nicotinc acetylcholine receptors. channels open. nicotinc is in brain PNS and muscles
what two neurotransmitters are used by the PNS
NE, ACh
where is ACh in the CNS
learning, memory, attention/vigilane, susceptible to degeneration in AD
per capita cigarrette consumption reduced from 12 p/day to 6 p/ day in what year and due to what?
1964 due to the first US Surgeon General report on smoking and health.
components of smoke that consist of particles
particulate phase
sticky material found in the particulate phase of tobacco smoke and other pollutants in the airs
tar
portion of tobacco smoke that consists of gasses
gaseous phase
extremely toxic gas that prevents blood cells from carrying oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body
carbon monoxide
hair like cells that sweep bad particles away from lungs
cilia
toxic, dependence-producing psychoactive drug found in tobacco products
nicotine
changes naturally acidic nicotine into an alkaline free-base form thats more easily passed thru bosy tissues into bloodstream
ammonia
the idea that smokers will adjust their smoking of cigarrettes so as to maintain a steady input of nicotine to the body
titration hypothesis
disease that damages the heart as a result of a restriction of blood flow thru coronary arteries
coronary heart disease
a disease in which blood flow is restricted because the wlals of arteries harden and lose their elasticity
arteriosclerosis
a disease in which blood flow is restricted becasue of the buildup of fatty deposists inside arteris
atherosclerosis
group of diseases characterized by breathing due to an abnormality in the air passages
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
respiratory disease involving inflammation of bronchial tissue following a buildup of excess mucus in air passages
chronic bronchitis
an enlargement of air sacs in the lungs and abnormalities in the air sac walls, causing great difficulty in breathing
emphysema