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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
social psychology
study of the ways in which thoughts, feelings, perceptions, motives, and behavior are influenced by interactions and transactions b/t people
social cognition
processes by which people select, interpret, and remember social information
social perception
the process by which people come to understand and categorize the behaviors of others
causal attributions
how poeple make judgments abuot the forces that influence other people's behavior
attribution theory
general apporach to describing the ways the social perceiver uses information to generate causal explanations
covariation theory
people should attribute a behavior to a causal factor (when appropriate)
covariation principle with three dimensions of info:
1. distinctiveness: wheter behavior is specifc?
2. consistency: contineues?
3. consensus: others agree?
fundamental attribution error
dual tendency for people to overestimate dispositional factors and underestimate situational factors when blaming
self-serving bias
leads people to take credit for their successes while denying or explaining away responsibility for their failures
(especially in groups)
self-fulfilling prophecies
predictions made about some future behavior or even thta modify behaviroal interactions so as to produce what is expected
behavioral confirmation
someone's expectations about another person actually influence the second perosn to behave in ways that confirm the original hypothesis
positive or negative evaluation of people, objects, and ideas
accessibility (when with attitude)
strength of the association between an attitude object adn a person's evaluation of that object
deliberate efforts to change your attitude
elaboration likelihood model
theory of persuasion; defines how likely it is that people will focus their cognitive processes to elaboarate upon a persuasive message
cognitive dissonance
state of conflict someone experiences AFTER making a decision, taking an action, etc.
(justify behaviors..only for$)
self-perception thoery

you infer what your internal states (beliefs, motives, etc) are by perceiving how you act now and fremembering how acted before to explain behavior.
change in behavior consisten with people's direct requests
reciprocity norm
when someone does something nice for you, reciprocate.
return favors=much larger
door-in-the-face technique
when people sya 'no' to a large request, they will often say 'yes' to a more moderate request
learned attitude toward a target object, involving negative feelings, beliefs that justify the attitude, and a behavioral intention to avoid, control, etc
social categorization
process by which people organize their social environemnt by categorizing themselves and others into groups
groups which with people identify as members (in prejudice)
groups with which they don't identify
in-group bias
evaluation of one's own gruop as better than others

out-group instantly - hostile feelings/unfiar treatment
discrimination against people based ont heir skin color or ethnic heritage
discrimination agains people based on their sex
universal orientation sclale
notice similarities and ignore differences
generalizations about a group of people in which the same chaaracteristics are assigned to all members of a group
stereotype threat of CLAUDE STEELE
when people are placed in situations to which negative aspects of stereotypes are relevant...sets up people for failure
contact hypothessis
a program combating prejeudice must foster personal interaction in the pursiuit of shared goals
jigsaw technique
each pupil is given part of the total material to master and then share with other group members--every person's part is SO IMPORTANT
jisgsaw classrooms
lesson interracial conflict; unites students as a common-fate team
how become friends with people?
physical attractiveness
reciprocity (who like you as well)
adult attachment style
parents' social teachings early on may really REALLY influence children for later
attachment styles
social role
socailly defined pattern of behavior that is expected of a person when functioning in a given setting or group(home=child, college=adult)
rules (social)
behavioral guidelines for specific settings
social norm
broad guidelines regarding how you HSOULD act
tendency for people to adopt the behavior and opinions presented by other gruop members
informational influence processes
wanting to be correct and to understand the right way to act in a given situation
normative influence processes
wanting to be liked, accepted, adn approved of by others
norm crystallization
norm formation and solidification
(solomon) asch effect
normative influence (want to be liked); in group three lines on card clearly one longer but to be accepted ppl chose wrong line
2/3 didNOT conform
group polarization
groups show a tendency to amek decsiions that are more extrmee than decisions that would be made by members acting alone....EEK
tendency of a decision-making group to fliter out undesirable input so that a consenus may be reached, espcially if it's in line with leader's viewpoint
Candid Camerca scenarios
people mindlessly obeying 'rules'; stoplight on sidewalk, etc
prosocial behaviors
behaviors that are carried out with the goal of helping other people
proscial behaviors a person carries out without consering their own safetty or interests
reciprocal altruism
people perform altruisc behaviors b/c they expect that others will perform altruistic behaviros for them
Motives for ProSocial Behavior
collectivism (benefit group)
empathy-altruism hypothesis
when feel empathy towrad another individual, those feelings evoke an altruistic motive to prodvide help
bystander intervention
people's willingness to help strangers in distress
diffusion of responsibilty
when more htan one perosn could help in an pmergency situation, people often assume that someone else IWLL help so back off
person's behaviors that cause psychological or phsycial harm to another invidividual
impulsive aggression
people respond with aggressive acts in heat of the moment
instrumental aggression
goal directed; people carry out acts of aggression with premdeitated thought to acheive specific aims
frustration-aggression hypothesis
frustration occurs in situations in which people are prevented or blocked from attaining their goals; a rise in frustration then leads to a greater probablity of aggression
demand characteristics
cues in an experimental setting that influence participants' perceptions of what is expected of them and systematically influence thier behavior
peace psychology
works to promote peace within nations, communities, and families and encourages reseach, etc.
group dynamics
ways in which leaders directly influenced thir followers and they ways in which grup processes changed the behavior of individuals