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90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Watson believed psychology should
only study observable behavior
premise heritable characteristics provide a survival or reproductive advantage
natural selection
which of the following schools of psychology believes people have a basic need to fufill poetntial for personal growth and experince free will?
The ________ is a research strategy that minimizes the potential methological problems associated with the placebo effect and experimenter bias
double blind procedure
insulation covers axons and increases speed of tranmission of neural impulse
myelin sheath
primary visual cortex
occipital lobe
A ____ contains thousands of ____
chromosome, genes
neuron's electrical charge becomes positive and travels along the axon, the neuron is said to be firing
an action potential
brain structure responsible for coordination of bodily movements and balance
research show anatomical structure and function of the brain is ___ than assumed
more flexible
neurotransmitter released by motor neurons resulting in movement of voluntary muscles is (are)
hypothalamus influences or regulates all of the following except
psychoanayltic theory attempts to explain personality, motivation and mental disorders by
focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior
cells in the nervous sytem that recieve, integrate and transmit information are
if a neuron is not recieving any input or information, the neuron is at it's
resting potential
neurotransmitteres are "recycled" to be used again through the process of
Efferent nerve fibers transmit messages ____ the brain and spinal cord
away from
which of the following neurotransmitters is not a monomaine?
which psychologist believed that organisms tend to repeat positive outcomes?
B.F. Skinner
the correct order that info passes through a neuron is
dendrite, soma, axon
endorphins are neurotransmitters that
resemble opiates in structure and effect
the "birth" of psychology as a science occured when
1879: Wilhelm Wundt
How are theories and hypothesis related?
Theories are derived from hypotheses.
Which of the following correlations?
If a researcher varies the loudness of music in a factory to obsers it s effect on the employees, the indepedent variable is the
loudness of the music being played
brain structure involved in the comprehension of speech
Wernicke's area
which of the following is not included in the text's definition of psychology?
psychology studies primarily in the unconscious mind.
in experimental research, the variable the researcher measures becasue it is thought to be affected by the manipulation of another variable is the
dependent variable
research method in which a researcher engages with behavior, without intervention
naturalistic observation method
in experimental research, the variable that is manipulated by the researcher so that is impact on another variable may be assessed is the
independent variable
majority of people the right hemisphere is superior on all the folowing types of tasks except
variables, otehr than the independent variable, that seem likely to influence the behavior of subjects in a study are called
extraneous variables
if u take a sip of a soft drink and concentrate on what you are experiencing you are utilizing the technique of
an elderly person has a stroke that leaves her unable to talk and part of her body paralyzed, which part of the body is most likely to be paralyzed
right side
the area of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders is
clinical psychology
Behaviorism is founded by
John Watson
Evolutionary psychology examines _____ processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations
While the _____ nervous system i associated with conserving bodily resource, the ___ nervous system mobilizes the body's resources for emergencies
parasympathetic: sympathetic
If a person's hippocampus is completely destroyed, the person would have difficulties
with her memory
The master gland of the endocrine system
pitiuary gland
most widely practiced specialization in applied psychology is
clinical psychology
tentative statement about the relationship of two or more vaiables is a
which two procedures allow visual changes in brain activity over time?
deterioration of a structure in the ______ contains dopamine releasing neurons is involved in Parkinson's
While ______ postsynaptic potentials increase the likelihood of the postsynaptic neuron firing an action potential, ______ postsynaptic potentials decrease the likelihood
inhibitory: excitatory
Comparing a neuron to a gun that holds only a single bullet, the time it takes to reload the gun is similar to the neuron's
absolute refractory period
the neurotransimtter believed to be associated with schizophrenia
the glands and smooth muscles of the heart, stomach, ect. are controlled by the
autonomic nervous system
The ___ relays sensory information to the cerebral cortex
in experimental research, two subjects that receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable are the
experimental group
insomnia is best described as
chronic problems in getting adequate sleep
unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events are referred to as
flashbulb memories
which of the following drugs is not a narcotic
while ___ are the receptor cells for color vision ____ allow us to see in dim light
cones : rods
reinforcers inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological neesd are called the
primary reinforcers
most widely used recreation drug in our society is
structure of the eye that absorbs light, processes images and sends visual information to the brain is the
following a serious car accident
retrograde: anterograde
research concerning the content of dreams has shown that most dreams are
about relatively normal activities
becky has an intense fear of dogs, her fear dates back to when as a young child she was attacked and bit by a stray dog. Her dog phobia developed as a reuslt of
classical conditioning
following the death of their parents ten years ago, identical twins were placed in an orphanage, which would LEAST likely occur
Brenda will have an IQ near the upper limit of her reaciong range
Ebbighaus' research suggested that memory for meaningless information is forgotten
very rapidly in the first few hours of learning
when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus it is called
negative reinforcement
If you place a small peppermint on your tongue and keep it in the same place on your tongue, the intense peppermint taste will become less intense over time as a result of
sensory adaptation
if forgetting occurs because newly learned information impairs the memory of previously learned information it is referred to as
retroactive interference
a progressive decreases in a person's responsiveness to a drug as a result of continued used is called
which theory of hearing states that perception of pitch depends on the vibration of hair cells at different areas along the basilar membrane?
Place theory
people often find it difficult to solve a problem by using a familar object in a novel way because of
functional fixedness
If you were awakened while you are experiencing rapid eye movements you probably would report that you
had been dreaming
Psychologists who doubt the accurarcy of recovered memories of abuse maintain that
the recovered memories are inadvertently created in individuals after a therapists makes suggestions of childhood abuse
Depth perception cues that result because of the differeing views of the two eyes are called
binocular depth cues
circadian rhythms are biological cycles that are
24 hours in length
which theory of color vision states that the human eye has three types of receptors with differing sensitivies to different wavelengths of light?
trichromatic theory
the fovea is the area of the retina where ______ visual acuity is best in large part because the fovea contains only ______
visual acuity, cones
the BEST evidence supporting the roles of genetic factors in intelligence is provided by studies that compare
identical and fraternal twins
Your memory of how to do something, such as how to shoot a free throw in basketball is containted in your
procedural memory
modern IQ tests have a mean of
100, 15
Muliple choice exams such as th is one measure retention by using the _____ method
If you are "shaping" a child to pick up all of his toys, what would you need to do each time the child does a better job of picking up his toys than he did previously
give the child a reinforcement
gradual weakening and disapperance of a tendency to make a conditioned response is termed
many people find it hard to "walk away from" or stop playing a slot machine, this is because slot machines reward playing on a ____
variable ratio
which area of the brain is associated with the consolidation of long term memories?
hippocampal region
the storage capactiy of short-term memory is approximately ____ items
the brain structure involved in the comprehension of speech is
Wernicke's area
the type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus is
classical conditioning
Both _____ increase the probability the response will be completed
positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement
the type of learnign in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences is
operant conditioning
short-term memory
is a limited capacity store that can hold unrehearsed information for up to 20 seconds
in experimental research, the variable that is manipulated by the researcher so that is impact on another variable may be assessed is the
indepedent variable
long term memory
is an unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time