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91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
an individual's unique constellation of consisent behavioral traits.
Personality Trait
A durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations. EX/ honest, dependable, moody, impulsive, suspicious, anxious, excitable, domineering, and friendly.
Five-Factor Model
Suggests that most aspects of personality are derived from the "Big Five" traits: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and consciencetiouness.
Psychodynamic Theories
All the diverse theories descended from the work of Sigmund Frued that focus on unconscience mental forces.
the primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle.
Pleasure Principle
Demands immediate gratification of its urges.
The decision making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle.
Reality Principle
Seeks to delay gratification of the id's urges until appropriate outlets and situations can be found.
The moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong.
Consists of whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time.
Contains material just beneath the surface of awareness that can easily be retrieved.
Contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior.
Defense Mechanisms
Largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt.
Keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious.
Creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior.
Attributing one's own thoughts, feelings, or motives to another.
Diverting emotional feelings (usually anger) from their origional source to a substitute target.
Reaction Formation
Behaving in a way that's exactly the opposite of one's true feelings.
A reversion to immature patterns of behavior.
Bolstering self-esteem by forming an imagionary or real alliance with some person or group.
Psychosexual Stages
Developmental periods with a characteristic sexual focus that leave their mark on adult personality.
A failure to move forward from one stage to another as expected.
A theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior.
A theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth.
A collection of beliefs about one's own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior.
The degree of disparity between one's self-concept and one's actual experience.
Need for Self-Actualization
The need to fulfill one's potential.
Self-Actualizing Persons
People with exceptionally healthy personalities, marked by continued personal growth.
Biopsychosocial Model
Suggests that physical illness is caused by a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors.
Any circumstances that threaten or are perceived to threaten one's well being and that thereby tax one's coping ablilities.
Experienced whenever the pursuit of some goal is thwarted.
When two or more imcompatible motivations or behavioral impulses compete for expression.
Any circumstances that threaten of are perceived to threaten one's well being and that thereby tax one's coping ablilities.
Experienced whenever the pursuit of some goal is thwarted.
When two or more incompadible motivations of behavioral impulses compete for expression.
Approach-Approach Conflict
A choice must be made between two attractive goals.
Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict
A choice must be made between two unnatractive goals.
Approach-Avoidance Conflict
A choice must be made about whether to pursue a single goal that has both attractive and unnatractive aspects.
Life Changes
Any noticable alterations in one's living circumstances that require readjustment.
Expectations of demands that one behave in a certain way.
Emotional Response to Stress
Annoyance, anger, rage, apprehension, anxiety, fear, dejection, sadness, and greif.
Physiological Response to Stress
Autonomic arousal, hormonal fluctuations, neurochemical changes.
Behavioral Response to Stress
Coping efforts, such as lashing out on others, blaming oneself, seeking help, solving problems, and releasing emotions.
General Adaptation Syndrome
A model of the body's stress response, consisting of three stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.
Active efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the demands created by stress.
Any behavior that is intended to hurt someone, either physically or verbally.
Constructive Coping
Relatively healthful efforts that people make to deal with stressful events.
Type A Personality
Includes three elements: (1) a strong competitive orientation, (2) impatience and time urgency, (3) anger and hostility.
Type B Personality
Relatively relaxed, patient, easygoing, amicable behavior.
Immune Response
The body's defensive reaction to invasion by bacteria, viral agents, or other foreign substances.
Social Support
various types of aid and succor provided by members of one's social networks.
Catastrophic Thinking
Unrealistically pessimistic appraisals of stress that exaggerate the magnitude of one's problems.
Rational-Emotional Therapy
A treatment approach that focuses on altering clients' patterns of irrational thinking to reduce maladaptive emotions and behaviors.
Medical Model
Proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease.
Distinguishing one illness from another.
The apparent causation and developmental history of an illness.
A forcast about the probable course of an illness
Anxiety Disorder
A class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
A chronic, high level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific threat.
Phobic Disorder
A persistant and irrational fear of an object or situation that presents no realistic danger.
Panic Disorder
Recurrent attacks of everwhelming anxiety that usually occur suddenly and unexpectedly.
A fear of going out to public places.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
Persistant, uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions).
Dissociative Disorder
A class of disorders in which people lose contact with portions of their consciousness or memory, resulting in disruptions in their sense of identity.
Dissociative Identity Disorder
The coexistance in one person of two or more largely complete, and usually very different, personalities.
Mood Disorders
A class of disorders marked by emotional disturbances of varied kinds that may spill over to disrupt physical, perceptual, social, and thought processes.
Major Depressive Disorder
People show persistent feelings of sadness and despair and a loss of interest in previous sources of pleasure.
Bipolar Disorder
The experience of both depressed and manic periods.
Schizophrenic Disorders
A class of disorders marked by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and deterioration of adaptive bevaior.
False beliefs that are maintained even though they clearly are out of touch with reality.
Sensory perceptions that occur in the absence of a real, external stimulus or are gross distortions of perceptual input.
A legal status indicating that a person cannot be held responsible for his or her actions because of mental illness.
Involuntary Commitment
People are hospitalized in psychiatric facilities against their will.
Eating Disorders
Severe Disturbances in eating behavior characterized by preoccupation with weight concerns and unhealthy efforts to control weight.
Anorexia Nervosa
Intense fear of gaining weight, disturbed body image, refusal to maintain normal weight, and dangerous measures to lose weight.
Bulimia Nervosa
Habitually engaging in out-of-control overeating followed by unhealthy compensatory efforts, such as self-induced vommiting, fasting, abuse of laxitives and diuretics, and excessive exercise.
Clinical/Counseling Psychologists
Specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and everyday behavioral problems.
Physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders.
Insight Therapies
Verbal interactions intended to enhance clients' self-knowledge and thus promote healthful changes in personality and behavior.
Free Association
Clients spontaneosly express their thoughts and feelings exactly as they occur with as little censorship as possible.
Dream Analysis
A therapist interprets the symbolic meaning of the client's dreams.
The therapist's attempts to explain the inner significance of the client's thoughts, feelings, memories, and behaviors.
Client-Centered Therapy
An insight therapy that emphasizes providing a supportive emotional climate for clients, who play a major role in determining the pace and direction of their therapy.
Cognitive Therapy
An insight therapy that emphasizes recognizing and changing negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs.
Group Therapy
The simultaneos treatment of several clients in a group.
Behavior Therapies
Tha application of the principles of learning to direct efforts to change clients' maladaptive behaviors.
Systematic Desensitization
A behavior therapy used to reduce clients' anxiety responses through counterconditioning.
Aversion Therapy
A behavior therapy in which an aversive stimulus is paired with a stimulus that elicts an undesirable response.
Social Skills Training
A behavior therapy designed to improve interpersonal skills that emphasizes modeling, behavioral rehearsal, and shaping.
Biomedical Therapies
Physiological interventions intended to reduce symptoms associated with psychological disorders.
Transferring the treatment of mental illness from inpatient institutions to community-based facilities that emphasize outpatient care.