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184 Cards in this Set

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Binet-Simon Scale
-Alfred Binet 1905
-1st useful measure of intelligence
-Mental age
Mental Age
the mental abilities of a child relative to their chronological age
Standford-Binet Scale
-Lewis Terman 1916
-Intelligence Quotient
-IQ=mental/chronological age
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
-David Wechsler 1939
-1st IQ test for adults
-measures verbal and non-verbal skills
-based scores on normal distribution
Normal Distribution
a symmetric, bell-shaped curve that represents the pattern in which many characteristics are dispersed in the population
Extremes of intelligence
-Mental Retardation
-Giftedness
Mental Retardation
-sub-average general mental ability accompanied by deficiencies in adaptive skills, originating before age 18 (IQ<70-75)
-2-3% or population
-most are only mildly ______.
Giftedness
-upper 2-3% of normal distribution (IQ>130)
Emotional Intelligence
ability to identify, assess, and control the emotions of oneself and others
Social Intelligence
ability to effectively negotiate complex social relationships
Creativity
ability to generate ideas that are original and useful
Stability of Intelligence
in general, IQ scores remain relatively stable across time
-they may increase (practice)
-or decrease (cognitive effects of aging)
Personality
a set of complex psychological qualities that influence an individuals characteristic patterns of behavior ACROSS SITUATIONS and OVER TIME
Psychoanalytic Theory
An attempt to explain personality, motivation, and disorders by focusing on the influences of early childhood experiences, particularly unconscious motives and conflicts, along with the methods people use to cope with sexual and aggressive urges.
Structure of personality
-ID
-Ego
-Superego
ID
-primitive unconscious aspect
-pleasure principle
Superego
-conscious
-morality principle
Ego
-decision making component
-reality principle
Defense Mechanisms
-repression
-reaction formation
-rationalization
-regression
-displacement
-projection
-sublimation
Repression-Defense Mechanism
pushing painful thoughts out of consciousness
Reaction Formation-Defense Mechanism
forming an opposite opinion/reaction to an unacceptable desire
Rationalization-Defense Mechanism
attempting to justify a behavior
Regression-Defense Mechanism
retreating to earlier developmental levels
Displacement-Defense Mechanism
rerouting pent-up feelings to an object that is less dangerous
Projection-Defense Mechanism
attributing ones own thoughts, feelings, or motives to another
Sublimation-Defense Mechanism
channeling unacceptable urges into socially acceptable activities
5 Psychosexual Stages
-Oral
-Anal
-Phallic
-Latency
-Genital
Oral
Stage 1: birth-1 year old
-zone:mouth, lips, tongue
-task:weening
Anal
Stage 2: 1-3 years
-zone: anus
-task: toilet training
Phallic
Stage 3: 4-5 years
-zone: genitals
-task:identify with adult role models & resolve oedipus/electra conflict
Latency
Stage 4: 6 years-puberty
-zone: no particular area
-task: develop defense mechanisms & practice gender appropriate roles
Genital
Stage 5: puberty-18 years
-zone:genitals
-task: mature sexual intimacy & contribute to society through work
Fixation
States: If you don't resolve the primary conflict at each stage, you get stuck and your personality develops accordingly
- Causes either excessive gratification of needs or extreme frustration of those needs
Strengths of Psychoanalytic Theory
-provided a systematic view of disorders
-description of unconscious
Weaknesses of Psychoanalytic Theory
-difficult to test
-not falsifiable
-not empirically supported
-post hoc explanations
Neo-Freudians
followers of Freud who modified his personality theory and added ideas of their own
- collectively deemphasized the importance of sexuality
- ex. Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Karen Horney
Traits
relatively consistent tendencies to think, feel, or behave in a characteristic way across situations
- exist along a continuum
Big 5 Factors
- Openness
- Conscientiousness
- Extraversion
- Agreeableness
- Neuroticism
Openness: Big 5 factor
willingness to engage in new experiences
-traits: fantasy, aesthetics, feelings, values
Conscientiousness: Big 5 factor
attention to detail
traits: competence, order, dutifulness, self-discipline
Extraversion: Big 5 factor
how outgoing the person is
-traits:warmth, assertiveness, energy, positive emotions
Agreeableness: Big 5 factor
getting along with others
-traits: trust, altruism, compliance, modesty
Neuroticism: Big 5 factor
emotional instability
-traits: anxiety, hostility, impulsiveness, vulnerability
Atheoretical
Can describe personality, but does not explain how it is acquired or how a person with a particular trait will act
Humanistic Approach
emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially freedom and potential for growth
- the way we perceive the world creates out personality
Phenomenological
to truly understand behavior, you have to understand the individuals personal, subjective experience
Self-Concept
- Carl Rogers
- collection of beliefs about ones own nature, unique qualities, and typical behaviors
Congruence/Incongruence
- Carl Rogers
- the degree of disparity between your self-concept and you actual experience
Hierarchy of Needs
- Abraham Maslow
- systematic arrangement of needs according to priority
Actualizing Tendency
- Abraham Maslow
- innate inclination towards growth and fulfillment
Latency
Stage 4: 6 years-puberty
-zone: no particular area
-task: develop defense mechanisms & practice gender appropriate roles
Genital
Stage 5: puberty-18 years
-zone:genitals
-task: mature sexual intimacy & contribute to society through work
Fixation
States: If you don't resolve the primary conflict at each stage, you get stuck and your personality develops accordingly
- Causes either excessive gratification of needs or extreme frustration of those needs
Strengths of Psychoanalytic Theory
-provided a systematic view of disorders
-description of unconscious
Weaknesses of Psychoanalytic Theory
-difficult to test
-not falsifiable
-not empirically supported
-post hoc explanations
Neo-Freudians
followers of Freud who modified his personality theory and added ideas of their own
- collectively deemphasized the importance of sexuality
- ex. Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Karen Horney
Traits
relatively consistent tendencies to think, feel, or behave in a characteristic way across situations
- exist along a continuum
Big 5 Factors
- Openness
- Conscientiousness
- Extraversion
- Agreeableness
- Neuroticism
Openness: Big 5 factor
willingness to engage in new experiences
-traits: fantasy, aesthetics, feelings, values
Conscientiousness: Big 5 factor
attention to detail
traits: competence, order, dutifulness, self-discipline
Extraversion: Big 5 factor
how outgoing the person is
-traits:warmth, assertiveness, energy, positive emotions
Agreeableness: Big 5 factor
getting along with others
-traits: trust, altruism, compliance, modesty
Neuroticism: Big 5 factor
emotional instability
-traits: anxiety, hostility, impulsiveness, vulnerability
Atheoretical
Can describe personality, but does not explain how it is acquired or how a person with a particular trait will act
Humanistic Approach
emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially freedom and potential for growth
- the way we perceive the world creates out personality
Phenomenological
to truly understand behavior, you have to understand the individuals personal, subjective experience
Self-Concept
- Carl Rogers
- collection of beliefs about ones own nature, unique qualities, and typical behaviors
Congruence/Incongruence
- Carl Rogers
- the degree of disparity between your self-concept and you actual experience
Hierarchy of Needs
- Abraham Maslow
- systematic arrangement of needs according to priority
Actualizing Tendency
- Abraham Maslow
- innate inclination towards growth and fulfillment
Self- Actualization
- Abraham Maslow
- fulfillment of potential continual growth
Biological Approach
4 broad dimensions:
- sociability
- emotionality
- activity
- impulsivity
Temperament
an inclination arising from genes, to engage in certain thoughts, feelings, or behaviors
Behavioral Genetics
- our genes have an effect on our behavior
- we can measure the influence of genes by studying twins
Twin Study
- Identical twins raised together have identical DNA and similar environments.
- Identical twins raised apart have identical DNA but dissimilar environments.
Psychopathology
Problematic patterns of thought, feelings, or behavior that is associated with present distress or impairment in one or more areas of functioning
- must not be an expected response to an event such as the death of a loved one
FALSE
True/False: Psychological disorders are incurable.
FALSE
True/False: People with psychological disorders are often dangerous and violent.
FALSE
True/False: People with psychological disorders behave in bizarre ways and are very different from "normal" people.
Forms of Abnormality
- statistical rarity (doesn't always mean it's bad)
- personal discomfort
- maladaptive behavior (imp. with substance abuse disorders)
- norm violation
Prevalence
% of the population that exhibits a disorder during a specific time period
Comorbidity
experiencing more than 1 disorder simultaneously
- 65% of people who have experienced 1 disorder have actually experienced 2 or more
Anxiety Disorders
a class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension, fear, and anxiety
- related to threats in the future
- "irrational": the individual realizes their fear is excessive or unreasonable, but is still afraid (ex. running over babies)
How many anxiety disorders are there?
-Generalized Anxiety Disorder
-Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
-Specific Phobias
-Social Phobias
-Panic Disorder
-Agoraphobia
-OCD
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Chronic, excessive, uncontrollable anxiety that is not tied to any specific threat (ex. extreme worrying)
- accompanied by physical symptoms such as muscle tension and sleep disturbance
- prevalence: 5%
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
A severe psychological reaction to an intensely traumatic event that involves feelings of fear, helplessness, or horror
- Soldiers usually get this (ex. Dr. Hunt "Grey's Anatomy")
- symptoms last longer than 1 month
- prevalence: 8%
Specific Phobia
Irrational, unreasonable, persistant, disruptive fear of a specific object or situation
- domains: animal/insect, natural environment, blood-injection- injury, situational
- prevalence: 11.3%
Social Phobia
Persistent, irrational fear of social or performance situations, marked by fears of being scrutinized by others or embarrassed
- situations are often avoided or endured with lots of distress
- prevalence: 13.3%
Panic Disorder
Intense worrying or changes in behavior due to recurrent, unexpected panic attacks
- Panic attacks (periods of intense fear or discomfort) are not the disorder
- HINT: if one has This, they are likely to develop Agoraphobia
- prevalence: 2-5%
Agoraphobia
Anxiety about places or situations where it might be embarrassing to have panic attacks or difficulty to escape
- common situations avoided are malls, stores, supermarkets, planes, trains, cars, subways, restaurants, theaters, tunnels, elevators, and escalators
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
Presence of obsessions and/or compulsions
- prevalence: 2.5%
What are obsessions?
Intrusive and disruptive thoughts, images, or urges that the individual attempts to suppress or ignore.
What are compulsions?
Repetitive actions or rituals used to suppress or relieve anxiety-provoking thoughts.
Mood Disorders
Intense and disrupting changes in mood
- extremes of both happiness and despair
- fluctuation b/w periods of normality and intense emotions
How many mood disorders are there?
- Major Depressive Disorder
- Dysthymia
- Bipolar 1 & 2 Disorders
- Manic Episodes
Major Depressive Disorder
Persistent feelings of sadness and despair along with a loss of interest in previously enjoyed activities
- symptoms:
1)Dysphoric mood
2)Loss of/increase in appetite
3)Insomnia or Hypersomnia
4)Decreased energy
5)Difficulty concentrating, forgetfulness
6)Guilt, feelings of worthlessness
7)Suicidal ideation or attempts
- must have maj. of symptoms for AT LEAST 2 weeks
- prevalence: women=21%, men=13%
Dysthymia
Chronic, long-lasting, MILD depression (not AS intense as Major Depressive Disorder)
- persists for 2 YEARS or more, w/ NO periods of normal mood lasting MORE THAN 2 months
-prevalence: 1.5%
Bipolar 1
Occurrence of 1 or more manic episodes that lasts for AT LEAST 7 days
- usually accompanied by periods of depression
- symptoms:
1)Person feels unusually elevated and expansive
2)Inflated sense of self-esteem, including belief that they possess special abilities or powers
3)Decreased need to sleep and feelings of invincibility
- prevalence: 1.7%
Bipolar 2
Like #1, only symptoms only last 4 days and are less severe
- Hypomanic episodes
Substance Use Disorders
Both DEPENDENCE ON and ABUSE OF drugs that modify mental, emotional, or behavioral functioning
How many substance use disorders are there?
- Abuse
- Dependence
Substance Abuse
Problematic use
- prevalence: 14.6%
Substance Dependence
Uncontrollable use and physical dependence
- prevalence: 14.6%
Schizophrenia
A class of disorders marked by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and deterioration of adaptive behavior
- prevalence: .7% of general pop
almost 40% of the homeless
Symptoms of Schizophrenia
1)Delusions: false/irrational beliefs
2)Hallucinations: sensory experiences with no stimulus to create them
3)Incoherent thinking: cognitive impairment
4)Flattened affect: not happy or sad
5)Confusion: their internal world doesn't match up with reality
Subtypes of Schizophrenia
Paranoid, Catatonic, Disorganized, and Undifferentiated
Paranoid Type
Dominated by delusions of persecution and delusions of grandeur (type of Schizophrenia)
Catatonic Type
Marked by striking motor disturbances ranging from rigidity to random activity (type of Schizophrenia)
Disorganized Type
Incoherent patterns of thinking and grossly bizarre and disorganized behavior (type of Schizophrenia)
Undifferentiated Type
Marked by idiosyncratic mixtures of symptoms (type of Schizophrenia)
Personality Disorders
Long-standing, inflexible, maladaptive personality traits that cause distress, or difficulty with daily functioning
- 3 clusters:
A=odd/eccentric
B=dramatic/impulsive
C=anxious/fearful
How many Personality Disorders are there?
Cluster A= Odd/Eccentric
- Schizoid, Schizotypal, Paranoid
Cluster B= Dramatic/Impulsive
- Histrionic, Narcissistic, Borderline, Antisocial
Cluster C= Anxious/Fearful
- Avoidant, Dependent, OCD
Schizoid Personality Disorder
Minimal capacity for and interest in forming social relationships
- absence of warm feelings for others
- tendency toward solitary lifestyle
Schizotypal Personality Disorder
Anxiety and suspicion in social situations
- oddities of thinking, perception, and communication
- unconventional beliefs
Paranoid Personality Disorder
Pervasive and unwarranted suspicion and mistrust of others
- overly sensitive
- prone to jealousy
Histrionic Personality Disorder
Overly dramatic
- exaggerated emotional expression
- excessively attention-seeking
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Grandiosely self-important
- fantasies of success
- expects special treatment
- lacking in interpersonal empathy
Borderline Personality Disorder
Unstable self-image, mood, and interpersonal relationships
- impulsive and unpredictable
- prone to self-destructive behavior
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others
- failure to accept social norms
- failure to form attachments with others
- exploitative and reckless
Avoidant Personality Disorder
Pervasive pattern of social inhibition
- excessively sensitive to rejection, humiliation, or shame
- socially withdrawn in spite of desire for acceptance
Dependent Personality Disorder
Excessively lacking in self-reliance and esteem
- passively allows others to make decisions
- subordinates own needs below those of others
OCD Personality Disorder
Pre-occupation with rules, organization, schedules, lists, details
- extremely conventional, serious, and formal
- perfectionism gets in the way of task completion
Eating Disorders
Severe disturbance in eating behavior characterized by preoccupation with one's weight and unhealthy efforts to control (lose) weight
How many Eating Disorders are there?
- Anorexia Nervosa
- Bulimia Nervosa
Bulimia Nervosa
Habitually engaging in out-of-control episodes of overeating, followed by compensatory efforts (ex.vomiting, abuse of laxatives, excessive exercise)
- prevalence: women=1-2%, men=.1-1.4%
Anorexia Nervosa
Intense fear of gaining weight, disturbed body image, refusal to maintain normal weight, and dangerous measures to lose weight
-prevalence: women=0.3-1%, men=.01%, 40% of cases ages 15-19
OCD Personality Disorder
Pre-occupation with rules, organization, schedules, lists, details
- extremely conventional, serious, and formal
- perfectionism gets in the way of task completion
Eating Disorders
Severe disturbance in eating behavior characterized by preoccupation with one's weight and unhealthy efforts to control (lose) weight
How many Eating Disorders are there?
- Anorexia Nervosa
- Bulimia Nervosa
Bulimia Nervosa
Habitually engaging in out-of-control episodes of overeating, followed by compensatory efforts (ex.vomiting, abuse of laxatives, excessive exercise)
- prevalence: women=1-2%, men=.1-1.4%
Anorexia Nervosa
Intense fear of gaining weight, disturbed body image, refusal to maintain normal weight, and dangerous measures to lose weight
-prevalence: women=0.3-1%, men=.01%, 40% of cases ages 15-19
Somatoform Disorders
Preoccupation with physical or bodily problems without a medical reason
- Hypochondriasis
- Conversion Disorder
- Body Dysmorphic Disorder
Hypochondriasis
Excessive preoccupation with health concerns and incessant worry about developing physical illness
- visits doctor often
- concerns continue even after tests prove nothing's wrong
- prevalence: 1-5%
Conversion Disorder
Significant loss of physical function with no apparent organic basis
-usually in single organ system
-cant be explained by medical causes
-appears to be related to a psychological stressor
- prevalence: .01-.5%
Body Dysmorphic Disorder
Excessive concern about and preoccupation with a perceived deficit of one's physical features
- often co-morbid with depression, social anxiety, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation (plastic surgery)
- prevalence: 1-2%
How many Somatoform Disorders are there?
- Hypochondriasis
- Conversion Disorder
- Body Dysmorphic Disorder
Dissociative Disorders
A class of disorders characterized by disruptions in a persons memory, consciousness, or identity.
How many Dissociative Disorders are there?
- Dissociative Amnesia
- Dissociative Fugue
- Dissociative Identity Disorder
Dissociative Amnesia
Sudden loss of memory for important personal info., usually of a traumatic or stressful nature
- too extensive to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness
-retrograde amnesia, but anterograde memory is unaffected
- prevalence: ? hard to diagnose
Dissociative Fugue
Loss of memory for entire life and identity
- usually involves traveling away from home after onset
- identity and memories return, but memory for the period of time spent missing is gone (ex. Jason Borne)
- prevalence: .02%
Dissociative Identity Disorder
Existence of 2 or more distinct personalities within the same person
- "alters" recurrently take control of person's behavior
- inability to recall important personal info.
- prevalence: 0.01%
Culture-Specific Disorders
- Asian: Koro, Amok, Dhat, Ghost Sickness
- Native American: Wendigo Psychosis, Hi-wa Itck, Pibloktoq
- Other: Brain Fag, A Spell
Dissociative Disorders
A class of disorders characterized by disruptions in a persons memory, consciousness, or identity.
How many Dissociative Disorders are there?
- Dissociative Amnesia
- Dissociative Fugue
- Dissociative Identity Disorder
Dissociative Amnesia
Sudden loss of memory for important personal info., usually of a traumatic or stressful nature
- too extensive to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness
-retrograde amnesia, but anterograde memory is unaffected
- prevalence: ? hard to diagnose
Dissociative Fugue
Loss of memory for entire life and identity
- usually involves traveling away from home after onset
- identity and memories return, but memory for the period of time spent missing is gone (ex. Jason Borne)
- prevalence: .02%
Dissociative Identity Disorder
Existence of 2 or more distinct personalities within the same person
- "alters" recurrently take control of person's behavior
- inability to recall important personal info.
- prevalence: 0.01%
Culture-Specific Disorders
- Asian: Koro, Amok, Dhat, Ghost Sickness
- Native American: Wendigo Psychosis, Hi-wa Itck, Pibloktoq
- Other: Brain Fag, A Spell
Koro
Fear that your genitals are shrinking and will disappear.
Amok
Dissociative episode involving agressive outbursts accompanied by amnesia.
Dhat
Fear of excessive loss of semen.
Ghost Sickness
Brief trance state involving tremors, delirium, and hallucinations.
Wendigo Psychosis
Intense craving for human flesh and fear of becoming a cannibal.
Hi-wa Itck
Insomnia, depression, and loss of appetite associated with unwanted separation from a loved one.
Pibloktoq
Hysteria, depression, insensitivity to cold, and echolalia.
Brain Fag
Depression, loss of energy, and difficulty concentrating.
A Spell
Light-headedness, sweaty palms, and rapid heartbeat.
Who provides treatment?
-Clinical/Counseling Psychologists
-Psychiatrists
Clinical/Counseling Psychologists
Specialize in diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and everyday behavioral problems.
Psychiatrists
Physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders.
What are the Goals of Therapy?
1) Reaching a diagnosis (DESCRIBE)
2) Proposing a cause (EXPLAIN)
3) Making a prognosis (PREDICT)
4) Treatment (APPLY)
Psychodynamic Therapy
A less intensive form of psychoanalysis.
-problem: Forbidden id impulses are trying to break through.
-goal: Allow the expression of these impulses by bringing them into consciousness, where they can be confronted and worked through.
-techniques: psychoanalysis, free association, dream interpretation,& projective tests
Psychoanalysis
Intensive and prolonged exploration of unconscious motivations and conflicts.
-- Based on the idea that psychological difficulties are caused by unconscious conflicts
Free Association
Technique used in psychoanalysis in which the patient says whatever comes to mind, and the train of thought reveals to the therapist the patient's issues and ways of handling them.
Dream Analysis
Technique used in psychoanalysis in which the therapist examines the content of dreams to gain access to the unconscious
Dream Interpretation
Technique used in psychoanalysis in which the therapist deciphers the patients words and behaviors, assigning unconscious motivations to them.
Projective Tests
A method used to access personality and psychopathology that asks the test taker to make sense of ambiguous stimuli.
Humanistic/Client-Centered Therapy
A type of insight-orientated therapy that focuses on people's potential for growth and the importance of an empathic therapist.
-problem: Incongruence b/w actual and ideal selves.
-goal: Help people become more congruent by increasing self-awareness and self-acceptance.
-techniques: Non-directive therapy & unconditional positive regard
Non-Directive Therapy
A mismatch between a person's real self and his/her ideal self. The therapist must empathize with the client.
Unconditional Positive Regard
The therapist must convey positive feelings for the client regardless of the clients thoughts, feelings, or actions.
Behavior Therapy
A type of therapy that focuses on modifying observable, measurable behaviors.
-problem: Problematic learning contingencies
-goal: Unlearn the problematic contingencies through classical conditioning and extinction.
-techniques: Exposure, Systematic Desensitization, & Aversion Therapy
Exposure
Repeated presentation of stimulus, leading to extinction of a conditioned emotional response.
Systematic Desensitization
Learn relaxation techniques, then get exposed to increasingly anxiety-provoking stimuli.
Aversion Therapy
Associate unwanted behavior with an unpleasant stimulus, usually for substance abuse.
Cognitive Therapy
A type of therapy designed to help clients think realistically and rationally in order to reinterpret events that otherwise would lead to distressing thoughts, feelings, and/or behaviors.
-problem: Problematic thinking, cognitive distortions
-goal: Clarify distorted conditions and teach appropriate ways of thinking.
-technique: Cognitive Restructuring
Cognitive Restructuring
Replacing distorted patterns of thinking with more adaptive patterns. (ex. When you have a BIG nose and you always assume everyone is starring at you bc of your big nose)
Cognitive Distortions
Systematic biases in the way a person thinks about events and people, including oneself.
Biological Therapy
-problem: Physical cause
-goal: Correct the underlying biological malfunction
-techniques: Electroconvulsive Therapy & Medication
Electroconvulsive Therapy
- Electrically induced seizures
- Originally used for a wide variety of disorders, but today used mainly to treat severe depression, mania, and catatonia
- Can cause mild or severe memory loss
Anti-Anxiety Drugs
Minor tranquilizers
- Work by depressing the responsiveness of the CNS (central nervous system)
- ex. Valium, Xanax
Antipsychotic Drugs
Major tranquilizers
- Work by reducing the effects of dopamine
- ex. Thorazine, Haldol
- Tardive Dyskinesia
Mood Stabilizers
Relieve manic symptoms
- Prevent future episodes of mania and depression
- ex. Lithium, Depakote
Antidepressant Drugs
Mood elevators
- Work by increasing the activity of norepinephrine and serotonin
- ex. Prozac, Zoloft
Tardive Dyskinesia
Side-effect of antipsychotic drugs where one loses motor controls of the face; only happens if a lot of drugs are taken