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89 Cards in this Set

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What was the neutral stimulus in the office?
The windows sound
- Who was known for the theory of repression?
o Sigmond Freund
- What is classical conditioning?
o Learning to associate two stimuli
 Have to happen close together in time
 One has to appear to predict the other
o A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus.
- What is the UCS? UCR? CS? CR? Be able to identify each in examples of classical conditioning.
o UCS – Unconditioned Stimulus
 Stimulus that unconditionally, automatically and naturally, triggers a response.
o UCR – Unconditioned Response
 Unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus.
o CS – Conditioned stimulus
 Originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response.
o CR – Conditioned Response
 Learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus.
Acquisition
 Initial stage
 Neutral stimulus is associated with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response.
 Other examples: taste aversions, smoking cessations techniques
o Extinction
 Diminished CR
 An UCS does not follow a CS
o Spontaneous recovery
 Reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR
o Generalization
 Tendency for stimuli similar to CS to elicit similar responses
o Discrimination
 The learned ability to distinguished between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal an UCS
- Who was Pavlov and what did he contribute to psychology?
o Ivan Pavlov was a Russian physician/ neurophysiologist
o Nobel prize in 1904
o Did classical conditioning
- Who was Watson and what did he contribute to psychology?
o John Watson did Behaviorism
o Viewed psychology as objective science
 Generally accepted
o Recommended study of behavior without reference to unobservable mental processes
 Not universally accepted
- What is associative learning?
o Learning that two events occur together
 Stimuli or a stimulus, response and its consequences
- What is associative learning?
o Learning that two events occur together
 Stimuli or a stimulus, response and its consequences
- What is operant conditioning & why differ from CC?
o A type of conditioning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
o Differs from classical conditioning because operant behavior operates on the environment, producing consequences.
- What is the law of effect and how does it relate to operant conditioning
o From Thorndike
o Behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely; behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.
- Who was Skinner and what did he contribute to psychology?
o Did operant conditioning
o Law of effect (rewarded behavior is likely to recur)
- What is shaping?
o Operant conditioning procedure; reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of a desired goal.
- What is the difference between primary and secondary reinforcers?
o Primary reinforcer – an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.
o Secondary (Conditioned) reinforcer – a stimulus that gains it reinforcing power through association with a primary reinforcer.
- What is the difference between continuous and partial/intermittent reinforcement schedules?
o Continuous – reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs (like Sniffy)
o Partial/Intermittent – reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition but greater resistance to extinction.
fixed-ratio schedule
reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses (piecework pay)
Variable-ratio?
reinforces response after an unpredictable number of responses (gambling)
Fixed-interval
reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed (checking for cookies)
Variable-interval
reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals (getting e-mail)
- What is punishment? How does positive punishment differ from negative? How does punishment differ from reinforcement
o Punishment – opposite to that of reinforcement. Reinforcement increases a behavior; punishment decreases it.
o Positive punishment – administer an aversive stimulus (spanking; a parking ticket)
o Negative punishment – withdraw a desirable stimulus (time-out form privileges such as TV; revoked driver’s license.
- What are intrinsic and extrinsic motivations? And how do they relate to learning?
o Intrinsic motivation – a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake
o Extrinsic motivation – a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats, or punishment.
o Relates to Latent learning
 Occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
- What is observational learning
o Learning by observing others
- What is modeling
o The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
- What are mirror neurons and how do they relate to observational learning
o Fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so.
o May enable children to learn simply by observation how to mime lip and tongue movements when forming new words.
o Mirror neurons may also help give rise to children’s empathy and to their theory of mind.
- What did Albert Bandura contribute to psychology, and, specifically, the study of observational learning?
o Did the study of children and the Bobo doll
o Compared with children not exposed to the adult model, those who observed the model’s aggressive outburst were much more likely to lash out at the doll.
o We are especially likely to imitate those we perceive as similar to ourselves, as successful, or as admirable.
- What are flashbulb memories?
o A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
 Example, where you were on 9/11
- What is encoding? Storage? Retrieval?
o Encoding – The processing of information into the memory system
o Storage – The retention of encoding information out of memory
o Retrieval – The process of getting information out of memory
- What is sensory memory? Short-term memory? Long-term memory? How are they related?
o Sensory memory – The immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system
o Short-term memory – Activated memory that holds a few items briefly
 Working-memory – focuses more on processing of briefly stored information
o Long-term memory – The relatively permanent and limitless storage of the memory system.
- What is rehearsal
o Conscious repetition of information
 To maintain it in consciousness
 To encode it for storage
- What is the spacing effect? The serial position effect?
o Spacing effect – distributed practice yields better long-term retention than massed practiced
o Serial position effect – tendency to recall best the last items in a list
- What are mnemonics? How might they help you prepare for the exam?
o Memory aids
o Especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
o Study through notecards, relationships and so on.
- What is chunking
o Organizing items into familiar, manageable units
o Often occurs automatically
o How we remember phone numbers, addresses
iconic memory
– a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli
 A photo/picture image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
 “Magical” number is 7
o Echoic memory
momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli
 Short-term memory is limited in duration and capacity
o Implicit memory
retention independent of conscious recollection
 Also called procedural memory (like how to ride a bike)
o Explicit memory
– memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare
 Also called declarative memory (dates of events
- What is the role of the hippocampus in memory? The cerebellum?
o Hippocampus – neural center in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage
o Cerebellum – processes implicit memory
- What is priming? What are context effects? How might both be related to déjà vu?
o Priming – “memory-loss memory" Activation of particular associations in memory (usually done unconsciously)
o Context effects – to put yourself back in the context where you experienced something.
 You return to where you once lived or to the school you once attended and are flooded with retrieval cues and memories.
o Déjà vu – cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier similar experience (“I’ve been here before…”)
- What is mood congruent memory
o Tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current mood
 Memory, emotions, or moods serve as retrieval cues
- What are the two main explanations for why/how forgetting occurs?
o Forgetting as an encoding failure
o Information never enters long-term memory
 Can result from failure to retrieve information from long-term memory
- What is the difference between proactive and retroactive interference in forgetting?
o Proactive interference – (forward acting) disruptive effect of prior learning on recall of new information
o Retroactive interference – (backwards acting) disruptive effect of new learning on recall of old information
- What is the misinformation effect?
o Incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event
- What is source amnesia?
o Attributing an event that we experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined to the wrong source.
- What are some tips for improving memory listed in the text and discussed in class?
o Study repeatedly to boost recall, rehearsing.
o Make material personally meaningful
o Activate retrieval cures, mentally recreate situation and mood
o Use mnemonic devices
o Minimize interference.
- What are concepts
o Mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
o Algorithm
math, go through combinations
 Methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem.
 Contrasts with the usually speedier, but also more error-prone-use of heuristics
o Heuristic
look, guess and check
 Simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently Usually speedier than algorithms
 More error-prone than algorithms
o Insight
sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem
 Contrasts with strategy based solution.
o Representativeness heuristic
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes.
 May lead one to ignore other relevant information
 Sometimes contributes to stereotyping
o Availability heuristic
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory
 If instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common (example: airplane crashes)
o Confirmation bias
tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions
o Overconfidence
tendency to be more confident than correct
 Tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs and judgments
- What is functional fixedness
o Tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions
 Impediment to problem solving
- What is a mental set
o A tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, especially a way that has been successful in the past but may or may not be helpful in solving a new problem.
- What is framing
o The way an issue is posed
o How an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments
 Example: a global struggle against the enemies of freedom”
What is belief perseverance
o Clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
- What defines each stage of language acquisition: babbling, one-word, two-word, and telegraphic?
o Babbling – about three to four months
 Infant spontaneously utters various sounds (unrelated to the household language)
o One-word – from age 1-2
 Stage in speech development during which a child speaks in single words
o Two-word – around age two
 Child speaks in mostly two word statements
o Telegraphic – early speech stage in which the child speaks like a telegram, “go car”, using mostly nouns and verbs while omitting “auxiliary” (nonessential) words.
What is linguistic determinism
o Whorf’s hypothesis that language determines the way we thing
o Now believed to be an interplay between thoughts and language
Why is the relationship between thought and language believed to be circular?
o Language influences what we think
o To expand language is to expand the ability to the ink.
o Thinking develops hand in hand with language
o We think in images
o Thinking affects our language, which then affects our thought
What is g
o General intelligence
o Omnipresent factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities
o Measured by every task on an intelligence test
What is savant syndrome
o A condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing.
What is emotional intelligence
o The ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions.
Who was Binet and what were his contributions to intelligence testing
o Wrote the first intelligence test
o The Stanfort-Binet test is widely used as the American Revision of Binet’s original intelligence test.
What was the original formula for IQ
o The ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100
o On contemporary tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100
How do aptitude and achievement tests differ
o Aptitude – test designed to predict a person’s future performance
 Aptitude is the capacity to learn
o Achievement – designed to assess what a person has learned
What is the WAIS? What are its two types of subtests
o WAIS is Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
 Most widely used intelligence test
 Has verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests
What is standardization
o Defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pre-tested “standardization group”
What is the normal or “bell” curve
o The symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the destribution of many physical and psychological attributes
o Most scores fall near average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes.
Reliability
the extent to which a test yields consistent results
 Assessed by consistence of scores on both halves of the test, retesting
Validity
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is suppose to.
Content validity
the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest
 Driving test that samples driving tasks
What is stereotype threat and how does it apply to intelligence
o A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on negative stereotype
 Thus, women score higher on math tests with no men present. Blacks score higher when tested by blacks than whites.
What does the text generally conclude about the heritability of intelligence?
o Genetically similar people have the most similar scores.
- What is the James-Lange theory of emotion
Experience of emotions follows awareness of physiological responses to emotion-arousing stiuli
 Sight of oncoming car = hear pounding = fear
o Cannon-Bard
emotion-arousing stimuli simultaneously trigger physiological responses and experience of emotion
o Schacter’s two –factor theory
to experience emotion you must be physically aroused and cognitively label arousal.
- What physiological changes accompany emotions? Do different emotions activate different physiological responses?
o Emotions cause organisms to respond in 3 main ways:
 Physiological arousal
 Expressive behaviors
 Conscious experience
- How do we communicate nonverbally
o Facial expressions
- Do facial expressions influence our experienced emotions
o People more quickly detect an angry face than a happy one
- What is a catharsis
o Emotional release
o Catharsis hypothesis
 “Releasing” aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges
- What is the feel-good, do-good phenomenon/What is subjective well-being?
o People’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood (or feel-bad, do-bad)
- What is general adaptation syndrome? What three adaptive responses comprise GAS?
o Selye’s concept of the body’s adaptive response to stress in three stages
 Alarm reaction (mobilize resources)
 Resistance (cope with stressor)
 Exhaustion (reserves depleted)
- How is coronary heart disease linked with stress? How does stress make us more vulnerable to disease?
o Clogging of the vessels that nourish the hearth muscle
o Leading cause of death in many developed countries
o Linked with type A personalities
o Type A personality – competitive, hard-driving impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people
- What is biofeedback
o System for electronically recording, amplifying, and monitoring information regarding a physiological stage
 Blood pressure
 Muscle tensions
- What are the following activities/topics related to the promotion of health: aerobic exercise, social support, spirituality and faith
o Aerobic exercise – sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness.
o Social support – relaxing, helps calm down type A personality
o Faith – promotes social support and other healthy behaviors that lead to better health.