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64 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
Learning
He viewed pyschology as an objective science and believed in behaviorism
John B. Watson
When our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence it is called ____
Association
What is it called when a seal learns to expect a snack for its showy antics?
Associative Learning
Russian physician that studied classical conditioning
Ivan Pavlov
Describe the Pavlov dog experiment
UCS = food
UCR = salivation
Neutral Stimulus = Tone
(during conditioning)
N.S + UCS = UCR
(after conditioning)
CS (tone) = CR (salivation)
Stimulus that automatically and naturally triggers a response
UCS
Unlearned, naturally occuring response to the UCS
UCR
Originally, irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an UCS comes to trigger a CR
CS
A learned response to a previously neutral CS
CR
The phase associating a neutral stimulus with an UCS so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a CR
Acquisition
When a UCS does not follow a CS or the diminishing of a CR
Extinction
Reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR
Spontaneous Recovery
Tendency for stimuli similar to CS to elicit similar responses
Generalization
The learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal a UCS
Discrimination
Type of learning in which behavior is strenthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment
Operant Conditioning
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
Law of Effect
Any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
Reinforcer
Operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward a closer apporiximations of a desired goal
Shaping
Reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
Fixed Ratio (FR)
Reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
Variable Ratio (VR)
Reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
Fixed Interval (FI)
Reinforces a response at unpredictable times
Variable Interval (VI)
Aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows
Punishment
Persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
Memory
A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
Flashbulb Memory
The process of information into the memory system
Encoding
The retention of encoded information over time
Storage
Process of getting information out of memory
Retrieval
The immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system
Sensory Memory
This type of memory focuses more on the processing of briefly stored information
Working Memory
Activated memory that holds a few items briefly
Short-Term Memory
The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system
Long-Term Memory
Unconscious encoding of incidental information
Automatic Processing
Proccess that requires attention and conscious effort
Effortful Processing
Conscious repetition of information
Rehearsal
_________ used nonsense syllables so that the more he practived on Day 1, the fewer to re-learn on Day 2
Ebbinghaus
Distributed practice yields better long-term retention than massed practice
Spacing Effect
Organizing items into familiar, manageable units
(acronyms, horizontal org.)
Chunking
A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli
Iconic Memory
Momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli
Echoic Memory
The loss of memory
Amnesia
Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare
Explicit Memory
Neutral center in limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage
Hippocampus
Measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier
Recall
Measure of memory in which the person has only to identify items previously learned
Recognition
Memory measure that assessed the amount of time saved when learning material a second time
Relearning
Activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
Priming
Tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current mood
Mood-congruent Memory
A method of assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them to those of others, using numerical scores
Intelligence test
The ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
Intelligence
A measure of intelligence test performance / chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance
Mental age
Widely used American revision of Binet's originial intelligence test
Stanford-Binet
Defined originally the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100
IQ
Statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items on a test
Factor Analysis
Condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill
Savant Syndrome
The know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully
Social Intelligence
Ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions
Emotional Intelligence
The ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
Creativity
What is the most widely used intelligence test?
WAIS
A test designed to predict a person's future performance
Aptitude Test
A test designed to assess what a person has learned
Achievement Test
Defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group
Standardization
The symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes
Normal Curve