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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What term refers to all the mental activties associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating?
When we use the word "automobile" to refer to a category of transport vehicles, we are using this word as an...
IN the process of classify objects, people are more likely to make use of what?
Which of the folling statements will people typically agree most quickly with?
robin is a bird
An algorithm is what?
a methodical step by step procedure for solving problems
SImple thinking strategies that allow us to solve problems and make judgements efficiently are called what?
Unlike the use of algorithms or heuristics, insight does not involve what?
strategy-based solutions
The confirmation bias refers to the tendency to what?
Search for information that is consistent with our preconceptions
Scientists are trained to carefully observe and record any research outcomes that are inconsistent with their hypotheses. THis practice most directly serves to reduce what?
Confirmation Bias
THe inability to obtain a new perspective on a problem is called a what?
Stockbrokers, who markey their services with confidence that they can outperform the market average in picking stocks, are more liekly to what?
Appear credicble to their customers
A mental set is most liekly to inhibit what?
The risks of smoking are more alarming when presented in terms of the number of smokers with lung cancer rather than the percentage of smokers with lung cancer. This illustrates the importantce of what?
The smallest, dinstinctive sound unit of language is a what?
The various vowel sounds that can be placed between a "t" and an "n" produce words such as tan, ten, tin, and ton. These various vowels represent different what?
Chomsky suggested that diverse human languages share a what?
universal grammar
The best evidence that there is a crictical period for language acquistion is the fact that what?
People most easily master the grammar of asecond language during childhood
Whorf's linguistic determinism hypothesis emphasizes that?
Words shape the way people think
Research on the language capabilities of ape clearly demonstrates that apes have the capacity to what?
communicate meaning through the use of symbols
Beatrice and Allen Gardner taught the chimpanze, Washoe, to communicate by means of what?
Sign Language
In considering the anture of intelliegence, experts would most likesly agree that intelligence should be defined as what?
Ability to learn from experience
people's scores on the general intelligence factor are most highly correlated with their ability to solve _______ problems
the ability to control one's impulses and delay immediate pleasures in pursuit of long-term goals is most clearly a characteristic of what?
emotional intelligence
the concept of emotional intelligence is most likely to be criticized for what?
extending the definition of intelligence to an overly broad range of skills
Psychologists use ______ to assess individuals' mental apitudes and compare them with those of others.
Intelligence tests
The most creative scientists are those who what?
Approach problems they find intrinsically interesting and satisfying to study.
In order to determine whethera child's intellectual development was fast or slow, Binet and Simon assessed the child's what?
Mental Age
To assess mental age, Binet and Simon measured children's what?
Reasoning skills
Achievements tests are designed to what??
Assess learned knowledge or skills
Tests designed to predict ability to learn new skills are called what?
aptitude tests
When Brandon was told that he correctly answered 80% of the items on a mathematical achievement test, he asked how his performance compared with that of the average test taker. Bradon's concern was direectly related to the issue of what?
The distribution of intelligence test scores in the general populationn forms a bell-shaped pattern. This pattern is called a what?
Normal Curve
If a test yields consistent results every time it is used, it has a high degree of what?
Researchers assess the correlation between scores obtained on two hlaves of a single test in order to measure the ______ of a test.
Your psych professor has announced that the next test will assess your understanding of sensation and perception. When you recieve the test, however, you find that very few questions actually related to these topics. IN this instandce, you would be most concerned about the _______ of the test
If both depressed and nondepressed individuals recieve similar scores on a diagnostic test for depression, it suggests that the test is what?
not valid
Mr. and Mrs. Linkletter are parents of a mentally retarded child. It is most liekly that thie child will what?
Have difficulty adapting to the normal demands of independent adult life.
Which of the following observations provides the best evidence that intelligence test scores are influenced by heredity?
Identical twins reared separately are more similar in their intelligence scores than fraternal twins reared together.
In order for Mr. and Mrs. Goldberg to best predict their newborn daugther's future intellectual aptitude, they should what?
Obtain information about their own level of intelligence
Girls are most likely to outperform boys in a what?
Spelling Bee
Everyone would agree that intelligence tests are "biased" in the sense that what?
test performance is influenced by cultural experiences
Motivation is defined by psychologists as what?
A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal.
An unlearned and fixed pattern of behavoir common to all member of a species is called a what?
A need refers to what?
A psychological state that usually triggers motivational arousal
Victims of a famine will often eat things that are unappetizing as well as nutriotionally poor foods simply to relieve their incessant hunger. Their behavior is best explained in terms of what??
Drive reduction theory
Homeostatisis, which is the goal of drive reduction, is defined as what?
The body's tendency to maintain a constant internal state
WHich of the following is clearly not an example of incentive?
Accodring to Maslow, our need for _____ must be met before we are preoccupied with satisfying our need for ______.
adequate clothing; self-esteem
Ancel Keys and his colleagues observed that men on a semistarvation diet become what?
They lost interest in sex and social activites
What is the set point?
Specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults over long periods of time.
People are most likely to diskile the tast of _____ foods.
The recipes commonly used in countries with hot climates are more likely to include _____ than those recipes in countries with colder climates.
Those most vulnerable to anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are those who _____ value thinnesss and have the _____ body dissatisfaction.
Anorexis patients are most likely to have parents who what?
Are high-achieving and protective
During the resolution phase of the sexual response cycle, people are most likely to experience a rapid decrease in physiological arousal if what?
They have just experienced orgasm
Kamil, a 33-yr old lawyer, experiences premature ejaculation. Research suggests that his disorder can be minimized by what?
Learning ways to control his urge to ejaculate.
IN most nonhuman mammals, female sexual receptivity is greatest when what?
Estrogen levels are highest.
Brain scans of people viewing erotic material reveal a more active _________ in men than in women.
Men are more liekly to experience nocturnal emissions if they what?
Have not experienced orgasms recently.
Teens who use alcohol prior to sexual intercourse experience what?
Reduce self-awareness and are less likely to use condoms.
When people's need to belong is fulfilled throuhg close relationships, they are less likely to what?
Commit suicide, contract a physical illness, or suffer from psychological disorders
Which profession is most directly involved in the application of psychology's principles to the workplace?
INdustrial-organziational psychology.
The basic components of emotion are what?
Expressive behaviors, physiological arousal, and concscious experience
According to the ___________, you would be able to experience emotion even without sympathetic nervous system arousals.
Cannon-Bard theory
The two-factor theory of emotion places more emphasis on the importance of __________ than does the James-Lange theory.
Cognitive activity