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45 Cards in this Set

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What is the basic building cell of the nervous system, a nerve cell
Neuron
N
What are the different parts of the neuron?
Dendrite, Axon, Myelin Sheath
DAM
Bushy branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
Dendrite
D
The extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, messages are sent to other neurons or to muscles/glands
Axon
A
A layer of fatty cells segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons which enables vastly greater transmission speed of neutral impulses
Myelin Sheath
M
A brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
Action Potential
A
The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
Threshold
T
Junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
Synapse
S
Chemical messangers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons
Neurotransmitters
N
The reabsorption of a neurotransmitter, by a neuron following impulse transmission across a synapse
Reuptake
R
Neurotransmitter that enables muscle action, learning, and memory
Acetylcholine
Which neurotransmitter is linked to Alzheimer's disease?
Acetylcholine
Neurotransmitter which influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion
Dopamine
Excess Dopamine = ______
Too little Dopamine = _____
Schizophrenia
Parkinson's
Neurotransmitter that affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal
Serotonin
Neurotransmitter which helps control alertness and arousal
Norepinephrine
A major inhibitory neurotransmitter
GABA
A major excitatory neurotransmitter involved with memory
Glutamate
_____ mimics neurotransmitter
Agonist
_____ blocks neurotransmitter
Antagonist
Natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure
Endorphins
What are the functional divisions of the peripheral nervous system?
The Autonomic (which controls self-regulated action of internal organs and glands) and the Skeletal (controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles)
What are the brain structures that make up the brain stem and what do they do?
*Medulla (controls heartbeat and breathing)
*Reticular Formation (controls arousal)
*Thalamus (directs messages)
MRFT (3)
Little brain attached to the rear of the brainstem that helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance
Cerebellum
What brain structures make up the limbic system?
*Hippocampus (memories and emotions)
*Amygdala (emotion)
*Hypothalamus (directs several maintenance activities)
HAH
What are the 4 lobes of the cortex?
*Frontal
*Parietal
*Occipital
*Temporal
F Pot!
Area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
Motor Cortex
Left hemisphere section that controls the bodys right side
Motor cortex (output)
Left hemisphere section receives input from the bodys right side
Sensory Cortex (input)
The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energy
Sensation
The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaninful objects and events
Perception
Study of relationship between physical characteristics of stimuli and our psychological experience of them
Psychophysics
Minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time
Absolute Threshold
minimum stimulation
Minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time
Difference Threshold
minimum difference
Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation
Sensory Adaption
Short wavelength = ____frequency
____ colors
____ sounds
High frequency
Bluish colors
High pitched sounds
Long wavelength =
____ frequency
____ colors
____ sounds
Low frequency
Reddish colors
Low pitched sounds
Great amplitude =
___ colors
___ sounds

Small amplitude =
____ colors
____ sounds
Great amplitude =
bright colors
loud sounds

Small amplitude =
dull colors
soft sounds
What are the difference between rods and cones?
Rods - detect black and white
Cones - detect fine detail and color vision
Simultaneous processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously
Parallel Processing
Young and Helmholtz Theory
There were three different retinal color receptors
Red, Green, Blue
Opposing retinal processes enable color vision
Opponent-Process Theory
Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color
Color Constancy
Describe the sense of touch
Pressure, Warmth, Cold, Pain
Explain Pain
Theory that the spinal cord contains neurological gate that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass to the brain
Gate opens by the activity of brain signals traveling up small nerve fibers
Gate closes by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain