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70 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
a person’s awareness of everything that is going on around him or her at any given moment
Effects of sleep deprivation, including effects for those who work shift work
concentration problems and difficulty with problem-solving
Symptoms include trembling hands, inattention, drooping eyelids, general discomfort, irritability
People who work jobs involving shift changes throw off their body clock
Less total sleep and poorer quality sleep
Negative impact on productivity and accident proneness at work
Impacts physical and mental health
Adaptive theory of sleep
Sleep is a product of evolution
Different species have different sleep patterns to avoid predators
Restorative theory of sleep
Sleep is necessary to the physical health of the body
Allows for replenishment of body chemicals and cell repair
Types of brain waves and what type of consciousness they coincide with (beta, alpha, theta, delta)
Beta waves are present in a person who is wide awake and mentally active
Alpha waves indicate a state of relaxation or light sleep
Theta waves indicate early stages of sleepDelta waves make their appearance in stage three (make up 20-50% of the brain wave pattern)
Stage four sleep
Begins once delta waves make up 50% of the brain wave pattern
Growth hormones are released from the pituitary gland
Body is at its lowest level of functioning
People are hard to awaken and may be confused and disoriented if awakened
REM sleep
Eyes move rapidly under the eyelids
Typically when dreaming occurs
Sleep disorders (insomnia, narcolepsy, sleep apnea)
Refers to chronic problems in getting adequate sleep (falling asleep, remaining asleep, getting quality sleep)
15% of adults report severe insomnia; another 15% report mild or occasional insomnia
Causes include anxiety, tension, depression, diet, and health problems
Sleep Apnea
Person stops breathing for 30 seconds or more
Causes sleepiness during day and heart problems
Obesity is a primary cause
Treatment includes nasal sprays and using a continuous positive airway pressure device (CPAP)
Person falls immediately into REM sleep during the day without warning
Theories of dreaming
Dreams as Wish Fulfilment
Freud’s theory
Manifest content is the actual content of the dream
Latent content is true meaning of the content of the dream
Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis
Dreams are created by the higher centers of the cortex to explain the activation by the brain stem of cortical cells during REM sleep periods
Activation-Information-Mode Model (AIM)
Revised version of the activation-synthesis explanation of dreams in which information that is accessed during waking hours can have an influence on the synthesis of dreams
Theories of hypnosis
The Hidden Observer (Hilgard)
Two streams of consciousness: 1) communication with hypnotist and external world, and 2) hidden observer
Dissociation is a splitting off of mental processes into two separate, simultaneous streams of awareness
Highway hypnosis
Social-Cognitive Explanation
No physiological difference between a person in a hypnotic state and when awake (EEG patterns are the same)
Some researchers believe that suggestible people act the way they believe a hypnotized person would or should
Psychological versus physical dependence
Physical Dependence
Physical dependence exists when a person must continue to take a drug to avoid withdrawal illness because the body has become unable to function normally without the drug
Tolerance – larger amounts of the drug are needed to achieve the same effects
Withdrawal – physical symptoms due to the body’s trying to adjust to the absence of the drug
Psychological Dependence
Feeling that the drug is needed to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological well-being
Effects of stimulants and depressants
Cause the nervous system and many of the connected organs to increase their activity
Increase activity in the sympathetic nervous system
Diet pills, “stay awake” pills, Adderal
Produces feelings of euphoria, energy, power, and pleasure; deadens pain and decreases appetite
Depressants- downers
Major Tranquilizers/Barbiturates
Sedative effect
Highly addictive
Especially dangerous when combined with alcohol
Minor Tranquilizers/Benzodiazepines
Used to lower anxiety and reduce stress
Less addictive than barbiturates, and commonly used to treat sleep problems, nervousness, and anxiety
physical symptoms due to the body’s trying to adjust to the absence of the drug
any relatively permanent change in behavior that can be attributed to experience
Classical conditioning and related terms (conditioned stimulus, unconditioned stimulus, conditioned response, unconditioned response, etc.)
Neutral stimulus (NS): does not evoke a response (bell at first)
Conditioned stimulus (CS): evokes a response because it has been repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus (bell)
Unconditioned stimulus (CS): naturally capable of eliciting a response (meat powder)
Unconditioned response (UR): innate or “built in”; reflex (salivation)
Conditioned response (CR): learned response elicited by a conditioned stimulus (salivation)
Acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery
Acquisition is the period during which a response in reinforced
Extinction is the weakening of a conditioned response through removal or reinforcement
Spontaneous recovery is the reappearance of a learned response after its apparent extinction
Stimulus generalization involves responding to stimuli that are similar to, but not identical to, a conditioned stimulus (Little Albert)
Stimulus discrimination is the ability to respond differently to similar stimuli
Positive and negative reinforcement
Positive reinforcement occurs when a pleasant event follows a response (e.g. Your mom gives you $10 for each A you earn)

Negative reinforcement occurs when making a response removes an unpleasant event (e.g. If you earn an A on all of your exams, you are exempt from the final exam)
Primary and secondary reinforcers
Primary reinforcers are natural, non-learned, and rooted in biology (food, water, sex)

Secondary reinforcers are learned and usually satisfy psychological needs (money, attention, affection)
A token reinforcer is tangible (stars, money)
Social reinforcers include attention, approval, or affection
Schedules of reinforcement
Schedule of reinforcement: rule or plan for determining which responses will be reinforced
Continuous reinforcement is associated with a schedule in which every correct response is followed by a reinforcer
Partial reinforcement is associated with a pattern in which only a portion of all responses are reinforced
Partial reinforcement effect states that responses acquired with partial reinforcement are more resistant to extinction
Punishment lowers the probability that a response will occur again
Punishment that is most effective is given only after an undesired response occurs
A punisher is any consequence that reduces the frequency of a target behavior
Time, consistency, and intensity are factors that determine the effectiveness of a punishment
Punishment of the wrong behavior should be paired with reinforcement for the right behavior
In escape learning, we learn to make a response to end an unpleasant stimulus
In avoidance learning, we make a response to postpone or prevent discomfort
Learned helplessness
"i know some people who seem to act just like those dogs-they live in a horrible situation but wont leave. is this the same thing?" Learned helplessness is the tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures in the past, to explain depression.
Bandura’s Bobo doll study
Bandura’s Bo-Bo Doll Study
Group 1: Viewed adult sitting on, punching, hitting doll
Group 2: Viewed a movie of these actions
Group 3: Viewed a cartoon movie of these actions
When children were later placed in a frustrating situation and allowed to play with the Bo-Bo doll, they exhibited aggressive acts
Encoding, storage, retrieval
Encoding involves forming a memory code, and usually requires attention
Storage involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time
Retrieval involves recovering information from memory stores
Levels of processing theory
proposes that deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting memory codes
Researchers directed subjects’ attention to various stimulus words and asked them questions about various characteristics of the words, which were designed to engage them in different levels of processing
When participants received an unexpected test of their memory for the words, their recall was low after structural encoding, moderate after phonemic encoding, and highest after semantic encoding
Stages of memory
sensory memory- First stage of memory
Iconic memory – visual sensory memory
The sensory memory preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second
The sensation of a visual pattern, sound or touch remains for a brief moment after the sensory stimulation ends
The brief preservation of sensations in sensory memory gives you additional time to try to recognize stimuli
Echoic memory – the brief memory of something a person has just heard
Limited in what can be heard at any one moment
Allows person to process what has been said
short term memory- unrehearsed information lost in about 15-30 seconds.
long-term memory- some information is retained indefinitely; some is lost with the passage of time.
Maintenance rehearsal
the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about information, helps commit information to short-term memory
Without rehearsal, information in STM is lost in <20 seconds
STM holds approximately seven items at a time
Chunking can be used to group familiar stimuli and store them as a single unit to improve STM
Procedural and declarative memory
Procedural (Nondeclarative) LTM
Memories for skills
Include emotional associations, habits, and simple conditioned reflexes
Declarative LTM
Memories of what someone knows
Facts and information
Episodic memory
Theories of relationship between STM and LTM
Different views on how STM and LTM are related:
STM and LTM are independent systems
STM is a tiny and constantly changing portion of LTM that is in a heightened state of activation
Schemas are organized clusters of knowledge about a particular object or sequence of events (e.g. Kitchen)
Recall and recognition
Recall – information that is being retrieved is “pulled” from memory with few cues
Retrieval failure (“It’s on the tip of my tongue!”)
Serial position effect
Primacy and recency effects

Recognition – matching cues to what is already in memory
False positives can occur
Hippocampus’ role in memory
Memory loss was originally attributed to removal of hippocampus
Researchers believe the hippocampal region is involved in consolidation of memories (process involving the gradual conversion of information into memory codes stored in LTM)
Encoding specificity principle
the tendency for memory of any kind of information to be improved if the physical surroundings available when the memory is first formed are also when the memory is being retrieved. for example, encoding specificity would predict that the best place to take one's chemistry test is in the same room in which you learned the material. also, its very common to walk into the room and know that there was something you wanted, but in order to remember it, you have to go back to the room you started in to use your surroundings as a cue for remembering.
Decay theory
proposes that forgetting occurs because memory traces fade with time
Forgetting depends not on the amount of time that has passed since learning, but on the amount, complexity, and type of information that subjects have had to assimilate during the retention interval
Alzheimer’s disease
the most common type of dementia found in adults and the elderly. it has also become the thrid leading cause of death in late adulthood.

symptoms include changes in memory, which may be rather mild at first but which become more severe over time, causing the person to become more and more forgetful about everyday tasks, such as remembering to turn off the stove. as it progresses, the ability to do simple calculations is lost, along with simple tasks such as bathing or getting dressed. it is a costly disease to care for and people with alzheimers slowly become strangers to family members.
Development is the sequence of age-related changes that occur as a person progresses from conception to death
Development is a lifelong process characterized by continuity and transition
Research Methods
Stages of pregnancy (germinal, embryonic, fetal)
germinal stage is the first phase of prenatal development, encompassing the first two weeks after conception
Rapid cell division  zygote becomes a microscopic mass of multiplying cells
Cell mass implants itself in the uterine wall
The placenta, which is a structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mother’s bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother, forms
The embryonic stage is the second state of prenatal development, lasting from two weeks until the end of the second month
Vital organs and bodily systems begin to form
Embryo begins to look human, although it is only one inch long
Most vulnerable period
fetal stage is the third stage of prenatal development, lasting from two months through birth
Effects of fetal alcohol syndrome
a collection of congenital problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy
Microcephaly (small head)
Heart defects
Retarded mental and motor development
Senses at birth (hearing, touch, smell, etc.)
Touch – most well developed
Smell – highly developed
Taste – nearly fully developed
Hearing – functional before birth, but takes a little while to reach full potential
Vision – least functional after birth
Fixed distance for clear vision 7-10 inches
Prefer complex patterns and 3-D figures
Human face is most-preferred visual stimulus
egocentrism- the inability to see the world through anyone else's eyes except one's own. part of the preoperational stage(ages 2-7 developing language and concepts).
when child incorrectly uses a word to describe a narrower set of objects or actions than it is meant to
when child incorrectly uses word to describe a wider set of objects or actions than it is meant to
which is relatively established at birth, refers to characteristic mood, activity, level, and emotional reactivity
Three styles of temperament (Thomas & Chess, 1977):
40% were easy children – happy, regular in eating and sleeping, adaptable, not easily upset
15% were slow-to-warm-up children – less cheery, less regular in sleep and eating, slower in adapting to change, wary or new experiences, moderate emotional reactivity
10% were difficult children – glum, erratic in sleep and eating, resistant to change, irritable
Remaining 35% were a combination
Emotional attachment: close bond infants form with parents or caregivers
Mary Ainsworth observed infants’ behavior when separated and reunited with their mothers (The Strange Situation)
Secure attachment: stable and positive emotional bond
Avoidant attachment: anxious emotional bond; child avoids reunion with parent
Ambivalent attachment: anxious emotional bond; child demonstrates both a desire to be with parent and resistance to being reunited
Disorganized-disoriented: approach parent but without making eye contact; appear dazed and depressed
Day care and attachment – what do you think?
Vygotsky believed that children develop cognitively when someone else helps them by asking leading questions and providing examples of concepts. in scaffolding, the mosre highly skilled person gives the learner more help at the beginning of the learning process and then begins to withdrawal help as the learner's skills improve.
Kohlberg’s theory of moral development
Focuses on moral reasoning rather than overt behavior
Preconventional level (younger children): think in terms of external authority; acts are wrong because they are punished or right because they lead to positive consequences
Conventional level (older children): recognize that rules are necessary for maintaining social order
Postconventional level (adolescents): work out a personal code of ethics; acceptance of rules less rigid
Characteristics of adolescence
Age 13 to early twenties
Person is no longer physically a child but is not yet an independent, self-supporting adult
Not totally determined by chronological age
Imaginary audience
extreme self consciousness in adolescents. they become convinced that everyone is looking at them and that they are always the center of everyone else's world, just as they are the center of their own.
Erikson’s psychosocial dilemmas (intimacy vs. isolation, etc.)
in young adulthood, erikson saw the primary task to be finding a mate. true intimacy is an emotional and psychological closeness that is based on the ability to trust, share, and care, while still maintaining one's sense of self. see pg281
Disengagement theory
it is normal for older people to withdraw form society and from roles they held earlier
Kubler-Ross’ reactions to impending death
Denial and isolation
when our mental activity undegoes a change in quality or pattern, this is called an:
a. waking consciousness
b. altered state of consciousness
c. transient state of consciousness
d. hallucination
the sleep-wake cycle is a(n)____ rhythm, normally occurring every 24 hours.
a. annual
b. monthly
c. circadian
d. nocturnal
The suprachiasmatic nucleus instructs the ____ gland to release___
a. pineal; melatonin
b. pineal;serotonin
c. pituitary; melatonin
d. pituitary; serotonin
Which of the following does NOT have a role in determining when we sleep?
a. light and dark information
b. body temperature
c. digestin
d. serotonin
Which theory of why we sleep explains why we sleep when we do?
a. restorative theory
b. adaptive theory
c. reactive theory
d. REM theory
all narcotics are derived from
a. cannibus
b. opium
c. mescaline
d. morphine
which of the following is NOT an example of a circadian rhythm?
a. rhythm cycle
b. sleep-wake cycle
c. blood pressure changes
d. body temperature changes
the symptoms of sleep deprivation include all but which of the following?
a. trembling hands
b. inability to concentrate
c. feeling of general discomfort
d. hypnic jerk
in which stage do night terrors occur?
a. stage one
b. stage two
c. stage three
d. stage four
Most of our time awake is spent in a state called ___, in which our thoughts feelings, and sensations are clear and organized and we feel alert.
A. altered state of consciousness
B. waking consciousness
C. un-con
d. working con
In Watson's experiment with " little albert" the unconditioned stimulus was
A: the white rat
B. the loud noise
c. the fear of the rat
d. the fear of the noise
____ Occurs when a responce is followed by experiencing something pleasureable

A: postive reinforcement
B. negative
c> punishment
D> generalization
which of the following is not a problem with punishment

A> the affect of punishment is often temporary
B> severe punishment creates fear and anxiety.
c> mild punishment can be paired with reinforcement of the correct behavior
D> agressive punishment can model agressive behavior for the child
which type of memory allows us to have meaningful conversations

A. iconic
b> ecoic
c> short term
D> long term
which type of LTM is seldom, if ever, lost by people with alzymers disease

a> procedural
b> symantec
c> episodic
d> both b and C
the physical trace of memory in the brain is called the

A> memogram
B. engram
c> sonigram
D> pakigram
memory can be best described as

A> a series of storage bins or boxes
B> a process of storage
C> a active system that encodes stores and retrieves infmormation
D> a series of passive data files
in a blank design, several different of age groups are studied at one time

A> longitudinal
B> cross sectional
C. cross sequential
D> cross longitudinal
mental retardation and blindness are possible outcomes of the effects of ____ on the baby

A> alcohol
B> caffine
C> cocaine
D> mercury
which sense is least function at birth

A> touch
B> taste
C> smell
D> vision
by the age of 5, the brain is at _ percent of its adult weight

a> 25
b> 50
C> 90