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73 Cards in this Set

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What is psychology?
The scientific investigation of mental processes and behavior
Wilhelm Wundt
-first psych lab (1897)
-introspection
-basic psych elements
Edward Titchener
structuralism - you can order parts of consciousness; hundreds of levels
William James
functionalism - why do we do things - functions of certain behaviors and how they help us adapt to our environments
Thomas Kuhn
paradigms - a broad set of theoretical assumptions that most people in a discipline agree on

No real paradigms in psych
Psychodynamic
People have internal wishes/desires & internal conflicts that help them decide what to do
Determinists
Our behavior is determined by certain forces; purposeful behavior
Behaviorist
Environment controls behavior
Cognitive
How people perceive, process, and retrieve info
Evolutionary
We do things because they help us survive
Descriptive stats
describes the actual numbers; covers an entire group
Inferential stats
You use a smaller group of people to determine the outcome of a larger group
Correlation
How things (2 variables) relate to each other

correlation does not equal causation
4 goals of scientists
describe
explain
predict
control (change)
Pseudoscience
Looks like science, but doesn't hold up to scientific testing

-anecdotes
-replicability
-ad hoc hypotheses
-stagnant
Theory
System for organizing and explaining observations
Hypothesis
Specific idea about how 2 or more things fit together
Variable
Anything that can differ

continuous (like age)
categorical (like gender)
Standardized
Same from one person to the next
Operational Definition
Make specific
Random sample
Arbitrary selection
Generalizability
Does it apply to the whole group of interest
Internal Consistency
Do all the items tap the same kind of measure
Inter-rater reliability
Having more than one observer and hoping they see the same thing
Validity
measure what you're supposed to
External validity
applies to the real world
Internal validity
lack of flaws in the design
Naturalistic Observations
watching in real world settings
Hawthorne effect
People/animals tend to change their behavior if they know they're being watched
Social desirability
People usually change negative behaviors if they know they're being watched
Structured Observation
Bring people to lab
Ethnography
live with group (tell group the study)
Participant observation
Join a group to study but don't tell them why you're there
Case study
Usually very detailed of one or a few individuals
Self-report/survey research
Questionnaires, interviews
Correlational Designs
Scatterplots
Experimental Designs
You're manipulating/changing variables
Independent
What you manipulate
Experimental group
Gets the thing you change
Control Group
Doesn't receive ind. variable
Gene
DNA with a specific task
Genotype
genetic constitution of an organism given at conception
phenotype
observable characteristics of an organism that result from genetic at environmental influences
genetics
how personality and physical characteristics are passed thru inheritance
adoption studies
comparing biological relatives and adopted relatives
family studies
looking at identified patient versus parents and siblings
genetic abnormalities
looking at genetic malfunction
heritability
statistical estimate of the portion of variability in a population caused by differences in heredity

applies to groups, not individuals
sensation
the process of receiving, converting, and transmitting info from the outside world

sensation in receptors, perception in the brain
7 senses
taste, touch, sight, smell, hearing, balance, proprioception
receptors
organs that process sensory info
transduction
receptors convert stimulus into neural impulses
sensory reduction
brain filters out incoming situations so we're not overwhelmed
bottom-up processing
make sense of info from receptors to brain
top-down processing
previous learning effects what you perceive
sensory adaptation
fading of sensation over time
fovea
has a high concentration of cones
What causes your blind spot?
The optic nerve
Young-Helmholtz Trichromatic Theory
more correct @ retina level
-3 color receptor systems (red, blue, green)
-mixing lights
-doesn't explain color blindness or after-images
Hering's Opponent-process theory
more correct in brain
-also 3 color systems (red/green, blue/yellow, black/white)
-receptors can only process one at a time
-explains white light when blending colors
-better explains color-blindness and after-images
Depth perception
accurately estimating the distance to perceived objects and seeing the world in 3 dimensions
Binocular cues
using both eyes combined
Retinal disparity
your brain gets one pic from each eye that gives us a more complete picture
Convergence
objects that are closer to us make our eyes go inward
Monocular cues
available to each eye independently
Accomodation
changing shape of the lens so it bulges out when things are closer and flattens when things are far away
Motion Parallax
When you're moving, objects that are closer go across retina @ faster pace while other objects in the distance move more slowly
Troxler Effect
when you're focusing on a central object, you lose info in your periphery
Place theory
hairs bend maximally at a single pitch in cochlea
Frequency theory
hairs bend and fire signals to brain at same frequency of as the sound
Gestalt
we pereive whole objects rather than bits and pieces
perceptual sets
we have preconceived notions of what should/what's going to happen
selective attention
we attend to things that are of interest to us