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87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Psychology?
Study of the brain, behavior, and the cognitive process.
What distinguishes professional psychology from study by individuals daily?
2 Categories of Psychologists?
Practitioners, Academics/Researchers
What does a practicing psychologist do?
Help people, easily found in phone book, stereotypical. ex clinical counseling.
What percentage of psychologists are practicing?
What does an academic/researching psychologist do?
Find out, discover. Ex. scientists or professors
What percentage of psychologists are academics/researchers?
What percentage are both?
How do practitioners get paid?
Insurance, out of pocket ($80-140/hr), Gov. grants.
How do academics/researchers get paid?
Tuition, Tax $, School district $, Gov. grants.
What are the top 3 positions for psychologists?
Clinical psych. (private practice, mental hospitals)(43%),Experimental (Universities) (14%), and Counseling (10%).
Other positions for psychologists?
Education (6%), Social & Personality (6%), School (Guidance Counselor) (5%), Developmental (5%), Industrial (4%)
What is a psychiatrist?
PhD in Psych., MD-able to diagnose and write prescriptions.
(Takes about 8-10 yrs. of schooling.)
What were the 2 precursors to Psychology?
Physiology and Philosophy
What is the difference between rationalism and empiricism?
Empiricism requires evidence, sensory observations. (On the field)

Rationalism requires reasons, logic, discussions. (On paper)
What is intuitive psychology?
Intuitive psychology by "gut instinct", feelings, and intuition. Began with first man
Who was the first to study scientific psychology and when?
Willhelm Wundt-1879
What was Wundt's emphasis?
Contents of conscious experience...analyzed as small units.
How did Wundt study psych?
Used dark room-showed images(usually fruit)-asked describe your experience of perception. Ex. apple ("I see red", I see "round", I see smooth")
Who founded the Structuralist school of thought?
Edward Titchener
What was the Structuralist emphasis?
Same as Wundt (Titchener Translated Wundt's work)
What was the agenda of Wundt and Titchener's Structuralists?
Answer the question "What?" in reference to the mind.
Who was the founder of the Functionalist school of thought?
William James
What was the emphasis of the Functionalists?
The PURPOSE of conscious experience. (Believed you couldn't study the CONTENTS of the mind)

Ex. If you try to study a river, you wouldn't take a bucket and capture the water-it's no longer a part of the river-the river has floated away!
What was the agenda of the Functionalists?
Answer the question "Why?" when in reference to the mind.
What school of thought did John Watson found?
Importance of Behaviorism?
Dominated for longest period of time. One of the "Big 3"
What is the emphasis of behaviorism?
Observable behavior
What is the formula for Behaviorism?
Why did Watson prefer behaviorism?
"thinking can't be observed, but behavior can"
Study of thinking is more like philosophy-not very scientific
Mind is unknowable "mystery box"
Who is the most important Behavioralist?
B.F. Skinner
What did Skinner add to Watson's approach?
Watson: Mind is Unknowable
Skinner: Mind is Unknowable and irrelevant
Behavior comes from situation/consequences, not from rational thought or "head"
What are the ABC's of Behaviorism?
Antecedents (situations), Behavior, Consequencs.
What is Skinner's most controversial statement?
"Free Will is Illusion"
How does Behaviorism translate into modern politics?
Conservatives: People have power over their future-can make things happen.
Liberals: Situations overpower people's ability to effect their future. Need level playing field
What school of psychology did Sigmund Freud found?
Psychoanalytic psychology
What is the emphasis of Psychoanalytic psychology?
Unconscious motivations, urges
What is the image that psychoanalysts use?
Mind is "iceberg"- most important part lies underneath the surface.
What are the strategies of study used by Freud and Psychoanalysts?
Slips of the tongue (Freudian slip)
Free association (word-first thing that comes to mind)
Hypnosis (not as important)
Who is the founder of Gestalt psychology?
Max Wertheimer
What is does "Gestalt" mean in Gestalt Psychology?
What is the emphasis of Gestalt Psychology?
Contents of conscious experience...analyzed as WHOLE units.
How did Wertheimer come to this idea for studying psychology?
Saw blinking lights from train.
Lights were blinking separately, but to the human perception, looked like movement.
What is the main difference between Wertheimer's study and Wundt's study?
WHOLE units vs. small units
real time vs. stop action (good for analyzing some things. ex. baseball swing errors)
Who is the founder of Humanistic Psychology?
Abraham Maslow
What is the emphasis of Humanistic Psychology?
Goals, life purpose, calling in life
Who was continued where Maslow left off?
Carl Rogers
What is Humanistic Psychology considered?
Psychology's 3rd force
By the 1950's which 2 schools of thought remained?
Behaviorism, Psychoanalytic
What are the BIG 3 in Psychology?
Behaviorism, Psychoanalytic, Humanistic?
What is the most dominant school of psychological thought today?
Cognitive (Part of the Big 4)
What is the emphasis of Cognitive Psychology?
Goals (Humanistic), Conscious (Structuralism), Unconscious (Psychoanalytic)
Ex. VCR understanding of buttons vs. understanding of wires
What does Cognitive Psychology mean?
"In your mind"
What is Biological Psychology?
Study of neurons/synapses
What is Evolutionary Psychology?
Idea that we have evolved to do what we do-evolved behavior.
What are the 3 dominant forms of psychology today?
Cognitive, Biological, Evolutionary
What are the 2 themes that emerge when studying psychology?
Theoretical diversity-different perspectives=different types of psychology

Empiricism-a view of how we know "show me" (playing on field (Psychologists rely on this most)
What is the purpose of research?
Talking/going with gut vs. checking out to make sure.
ex. FL State vs. OH State

Intuition is not good enough
What are the scientific steps in research?
Formulate Hypothesis
Design a study(see other card)
Obtain institutional approval
Recruit participants
Obtain informed consent
Collect data
Debrief participants
Analyze data
Report findings
Why are statistics important?
Give indication if results are trustworthy-can bank on it happening again the same way.
Why is math important for psychology?
Need to be able to handle numbers in research results
What are the 2 main categories of research?

Experimental Research
What is the strongest form of research?
What is Descriptive/Correlational research?
1. Identify trends/associations of aspects of life by categories. ex. height & weight or female & male
2. Naturalistic observation, case studies, surveys
What is Experimental research?
To have a genuine test-need competing factors

"Relatively powerful-detect cause and effect"
What 3 things are required for a genuine experiment?
1.Independent variables-the competing factors
ex. another team
2.Dependent variables-scoring scheme (gives measurable numbers for results)
ex.point value for plays
3. Extraneous variables-anything else that varies that may give one side or another an unfair advantage.
Ex. home vs. away
Solution-neutral field
What are the 2 main ways the nervous system is divided?
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
What does the Central Nervous System include?
Brain & Spinal cord(usually surrounded by bone)
What are the divisions of the Peripheral Nervous System?
Somatic division (voluntary)-conscious, movement, sensory info.
Autonomic division (automatic)- Heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, perspiration, respiration, pupils of eye
What was Neal Miller known for?
Discovering biofeedback
"In small ways we can learn to control some aspects of our autonomic system"
What is the basic unit of the nervous system?
What are the basic parts of a neuron? (7)
Soma (cell body), Dendrites (receivers), Axons (senders), Myelin sheath (covers axons-allows neuron pulses to jump nodes and speed up)
Terminal branches (connects to dendrites of next neuron), Synapses (gaps that contain chemicals), neurotransmitters (chemicals secreted into synapses)
What are the 2 ways to activate a person?
Electrically, chemically
What does Acetycholine affect?
Motor movements, forming new memories

Lack-amnesia, alzheimers
What does Dopamine affect?
Voluntary movement

Too little-Parkinsons
Too much- Schizophrenia
What does Norepinephrine affect?
Mood, arousal

Affected by exercise

What does Serotonin affect?
Mood, arousal

What do Endorphins affect?
Pain relief, pleasure

Morphine can affect it
What is in the hindbrain? (3)
Medulla, Pons, Cerebellum
What does the Medulla affect?
Heart rate, breathing-keeps you alive
What does the Pons do?
Affects sleep and dreams
What does the Cerebellum do?
Affects balance, coordination, posture

ex. cats have great cerebellum
What does the midbrain contain?
Reticular formation
What does the Reticular formation do?
Affects arousal, wakefulness, reflex
What is in the forebrain? (4)
Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Limbic System (Hippocampus), Cerebrum
What does the Thalamus do?
Relay station for sensory info (except for smell)
What does the Hypothalamus affect?
Survival areas: hunger, thirst, sexual activity, aggression, fight-flight reaction