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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
scientist-practitioner gap
miscommunication between scientist (focus on research) and therapists (focus on experience with individuals)
characteristics of psychology
1) explanatory
2) predictive
3) facilitates intervention (figures out methods of treatment)
science
observation + evidence
hypothesis
prediction about the relationship between variables
scientific method of psych
1) hypothesis
2) collect data
3) analyze data, think of any and all explanations of findings, compare w/ other scientists' experiments, and replicate study
when comparing two variable, it is important to _______ each variable in order to be able to MEASURE each one
define
e.g. in a study on how love is related to happiness, one must define (in detail) love and happiness
observational studies
studies in which a researcher just watches (does not manipulate the situation)
characteristics of an observational study
1) systematic observation (a plan of obs.)
2) natural/ reliable observations
3) lacks lab control
4) multiple observers
an experiment has both ______ and _______ conditions
1) experimental
2) control
(e.g. in a drug study, experimental conditions = ppl taking the drug, control conditions = ppl taking a placebo)
experiment
researcher systematically manipulates 1 or more independent variables and looks for changes in 1 or more dependent variables
dependent variable depends on independent variable
(e.g. an experiment measuring happiness based on amount of wealth- which one (wealth or happiness) is the DV and which is the IDV?)
dependent: happiness
independent: wealth
in an experiment, participants are ______ assigned to conditions
randomly
true experiment
an experiment in which subjects can be randomly assigned to groups/ researcher has control of independent variables
(e.g. of not true experiment: one in which there are two groups- abused and nonabused kids)
when isn't it possible to conduct an experiment?
1. when it's unethical
2. when you can't randomly assign subjects to groups (i.e. gender)
correlational study
when a researcher observes/measures association between two or more (unmanipulated) variables
positive correlation
as one variable increases, so does the other
negative correlation
as one variable increases, the other decreases
which aspect of an experiment does a quasi-experiment lack?
random assignment of subjects to condition
quasi-independent variable
already in condition prior to research
limitations of quasi-independent experiments
1) less experimental control (b/c you can't manipulate their condition)
what are some musts when working with humans?
1) informed consent/debriefing
2) Institutional Review Board (IRB)
threats to validity of research results
1) placebo effects
2) demand characteristics - when the subject knows what researcher is looking for & (un)conciously acts that way
3) social desirability - Participants respond in way to look good to others;
Overreporting “good” behavior; underreporting “bad”
assessing causality in experiments
IDV causes change in DV
two probs. w/ assessing causality in correlational relationships
1) directionality - you don't know which one causes which, i.e. drinking vs. partying
2) third variable - the existence of a third unmeasured factor that is the main driver of variables
limitations of experiments
findings may not accurately reflect real world situations
psychology grew out of dual roots ______ and _______
philosophy and biology
central themes in history of psych
structuralism vs. functionalism,
mind vs. body,
theory vs. experimentation,
learning vs. innateness
considered the founder of psychology
Wilhelm Wundt
why is Wundt considered the founder of psych?
because he wrote the first psych textbook and opened the first psych lab in Germany (1879)
coined the term structuralism (was a follower of Wundt)
Edward Titchener
Titchener believed in ________
introspection (self-reporting/ looking inward) *criticized as unscientific b/c it is too private of a technique
established the first U.S. psych lab in 1892
Titchener
who developed the theory of functionalism?
WIlliam James
who developed the theory of functionalism?
WIlliam James
who developed the theory of functionalism?
WIlliam James
functionalism
focused on functions of mind rather than structure
functionalism
focused on functions of mind rather than structure
functionalism
focused on functions of mind rather than structure
James believed that certain behaviors were not consciously carried out, but that they were _______
instincts
James focused on logic and intuition, not ________
hard data and experiments
James believed that certain behaviors were not consciously carried out, but that they were _______
instincts
James believed that certain behaviors were not consciously carried out, but that they were _______
instincts
James focused on logic and intuition, not ________
hard data and experiments
James focused on logic and intuition, not ________
hard data and experiments
APA
American Psych Association
fun fact: by 1900 there were ___ psych labs in the U.S.
40
structuralism
investigates/defines the components of experience and emotion
functionalism
asks what the purpose of a given emotions
theories of the relationship between the mind and body
1) dualism *Descartes
2) monism *Hobbes
dualism
mind and body are separate- mind= spiritual, like a soul/ body=physical
monism
the mind and body are one- goes with the theory of materialism
materialism
both mind and body=physical- Gabby quote, "The mind is just another organ, we should treat it as such."
theory
thinking about people and their environments, but not really basing these thoughts on hard data/ measurable factors
key figure in the theoretical approach
Freud
Freud's methods
psychoanalysis (based on the study of the unconscious mind)
experimentation
answering questions about human nature by conducting studies
key figures in experimentation
Skinner and Watson
learning vs. innateness
another comparison
John Locke
Locke believed that we become who we are entirely because of learning i.e. we are a blank slate when we are born (behaviorism)
behavioral theorists
1) Pavlov
2) Watson
3) Skinner
Pavlov and Watson's theory of behaviorism
classical conditioning
classical conditioning
teaching an organism to respond in a certain way to a certain stimulus (has to do with associating one stimulus with another)
Pavlov's experiment outcome
bell > salivation
Watson's experiment outcome
furry animal > fear
behavioral theorists
1) Pavlov
2) Watson
3) Skinner
Pavlov and Watson's theory
classical conditioning
classical conditioning
teaching an organism to have a conditioned response to a conditioned stimulus
Pavlov's experiment outcome
bell > salivation
Watson's experiment outcome
furry animal > fear
Skinner's theory of behaviorism
operant conditioning
operant conditioning
teaching an organism to display a particular behavior in order to illicit a certain consequence
in classical conditioning, ______ causes a response in _______
environment, organism
in operant conditioning, _______ causes a response in _______
organism, environment