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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When Cannon removed cortex of cats, what happened?
the cats lived mostly normal lives except they would get more angry..
What happened to the wild monkeys whose limbic areas were removed?
They would approach everything - like they had no fear... primarily because the amygdala was removed.
Olds & Miller found that Rats would do what to the pleasre areas?
self-stimulate pleasure center even at the expense of things like food
Weiskrantz found that amygdala lesions in monkeys caused three things?
- dramatic changes in emotional behavior
- approach feared objects like snakes
- placed (lots of!) objects in mouth
LeDoux and many others found that the amgdala plays a critical role in....
fear conditioning (learning to fear something)
Outputs of some specific amygdala nuclei: PFC -- Polymodal Assoc. Cortex-- ventral striatum-- modulatory systems (NE, DA, ACh, 5HT) -- Hypothalamus-- Dorsal Mot N. Nagus
PFC -- Regulation
Polymodal Assoc. Cortex-- Cognition
ventral striatum--Inst Actions
modulatory systems (NE, DA, ACh, 5HT) -- Arousal
Hypothalamus-- Symp ns, hormones
Dorsal Mot N. Nagus-- Parasym NS
What happens when the amygdala is gone?
can't distinguish between different types of emotion..
What happened to the woman who's amygdala was gone and she was shown the blue square?
she wouldn't tense up
people with amygdala damage report emotions as being less/more arousing?
Amgdala does/does not govern fear?
does not
What does the amygdala do with novel and or ambiiguous stimuli?
goes crazy..
Which brain area includes:
Many dopamine and opioid pathways.
It is activated by rewarding stimuli such as Food, Opportunity for sex, MONEY!
Involved also in reinforcement learning
What fires together, wires together
The smartest dumb system!
nucleus accubens
when bad things happen to people do you get more activation in lateral, ventral, or medial?
Who __ said that emotions result from instrumental conditioning.. and not just good-bad, but pairing of action and valence... part of the reinforcement system.. do more or do less
what area may be more involved in the anticipation of positive or negative stimuli... it uses CS-US mappings and calculations
Limbic system
What region may be more involved with getting rewards?
- also may be important for modifying behavior in light of cues.. also change (update) activation when not getting expected rewards/punishments
There may be TWO reward/punishment systems and their interaction may be critical to emotion.. what are these two systems?
Limbic system and OFC
what regions are predictive regions?
amygdala and nucleus accumbens
what regions are involved with hedonic/outcome?
* medial vs. lateral
What is one challenge to the cognitivist theorists?
that thinking and emotion can operate indepenently... thinking can influence emotion but thinking is not necessary for emotion
What is a second challenge to the cognitivist theorists?
Cognitivists propose that emotions are post-cognitive but for Zajonc they are pre-cognitive... Pre-cognitive: affective primacy
What happens when in "mere" exposure the person becomes aware that one object appears more often then the other?
the effect disappears
what is the affective priming study by Murphy and Zajonc?
it is when the photo is shown really fast so you dont know you saw it and it is paired with either a happy sympol or sad symbol and that influences how you feel about the photo.
what happens to the amygdala when a scary face is subliminally shown?
the amygdala is still activated
Does amygdala response depend on cortical blindness?
No.. a study was done with someone with cortical blindness and they showed a picture and the side they couldn't see was scary and the amygdala still responded even with the absence of cortex/ awareness
unconscious fear processing depends on what pathway?
subcortical thalamo-amygdala pathway
True or False- you respond emotionally before you consciously know the stimulus
The 'high road' from the sensory thalamus goes to the sensory cortex/ amygdala, whiule the low road goes to the sensory cortex/amygdala which leads to emotional response?
high road= sensory cortex-- amygdala-- emotional response
low road= amygdala-- emotional experience
How do we know that automatic processing is automatic?
because it is too fast for controlled processing
What was a study about automatic activation?
Participants first made good-bad judgments about words.
Computer recorded speed
Fastest responses are “strong attitudes”
Slowest responses are “weak attitudes”
Brought back for the evaluative priming task,
using strong and weak, positive and negative stimuli as primes.
What three things do automatic attitudes do?
Automatically evaluate the environment
Bias perception
Provide a filter on a complex world
What was the study on Evaluative conditioning Automatic Affect by Olson and Fazio?
Participants played a game pretending to be guards.
Job was to watch for deviant behavior
They were to look for certain “items”
Occasionally, a Pokemon character was paired with an item
Some Pokemon with positive stimuli, some with negative stimuli

After playing the guard game, participants completed a priming task
Pokemon served as primes.
Does affective response occur before cognitive activity takes place?
can we have emotions without awareness of what caused them?
What are two studys of Accessibility and self reports? (automatic appraisals)
1) question was is dating frequency a predictor of life-satisfaction and the answer depends on the order of the question...
2) Recall 6 or 12 examples of own assertive behavior.. then participants rate own assertiveness.. those asked for 6 rated themselves as more assertive than the 12 .. because it is hard to come up with 12
What is the donald study?
Step 1:
scrambled sentences task
words either related to hostility
(e.g., “her he bit kicked”) or not
Step 2:
read paragraph about “Donald” and form judgments about him
those that read the hostile words thought Donald was a jerk
What is the Actor Critic Model?
Model that says their is a loop between prediction signals and outcome signals.. then prediction error signals so we are constantly predicting, than outcome, then reassessing then predicting and so on
Rolls said that emotions results from patterns of what?
reinforcement processes
What are affective trajectories hypothesis?
Affective systems are sensitive to change
Emotions can be constructed through tracking affective changes over time (trajectories)
Things getting better? Worse?
Not as predicted?
What is the Prospect theory in JDM?
That changes are more accessible than absolutes.. S1: Rapid intuitive impressions -- Heuristics... S2: slower controlled judgements- Risk -aversive
... so if you could rationally make all decisions you would never make a mistake
What theory says that $1 is always $1...
prospect theory
According to the prospect theory $1 should always be $1 ... what is the flaw in this?
$1 is not the same for everyone depending on the situation.. is $1000 the same to you and me as it is to a billionaire
What is an example of framing?
600 people are going to die
Positive: A 200 are saved, B 1 in 3 will die
Negative: C 400 will die, D 1 in 3 will die
What do negative and positive frames elicit?
positive elicits safe responses while negative elicit risky responses
What is the gambling study of Framing?
Who said that Affect= 3* (C+P) -5(N)... also that we have a positivity offset and negativity bias?
Cacioppo and Berntson
Does the brain care more about negative things in a positive set or negative things in a negative set?
Brain cares more about negative things in positive set than a positive thing in a negative set…
What is affect heuristic?
it is when how we feel can inform what we choose.. our emotions serve as a heuristic that affects our decisions.. but it may lead to irrational decisions
If someone were to ask if they can put a nuclear power under our bed and says high benefits and low risk this has to do with what?
affect heuristics
Who thinks that emotion may help us filter out the universe?
What does moral dumbfounding model say: ES--A--R--J
eliciting situation-- affect-- reasoning-- judgment?
In the moral dumbfounding model what do you do?
You don’t come up with reason first you judge on emotion… so you can reason and then change your automatic response the next time…
In Haidt's moral foundations theory what are the five innate psychological systems that form the foundation of intuitive ethics? HAPIF
authority/ respect
purity/ sanctity
ingroup/ loyalty
fairness/ reciprocity
What is Haidt's Moral Foundations Theory?
that there are five innate psychological systems that form the foundation of intuitive ethics (HAPIF)... each culture constructs its particular morality as a set of virtues, values and ideas based on or related to these five foundations
What is a problem with the Haidt's Moral Foundations theory in society?
that people see different moral beliefs are important which is why no one can get along.. like abortion for example
what part of gage was damaged?
Ventral Prefrontal cortex... so the orbitofrontal cortex was blown out which is important
What is the Iowa gambling task?
it is gambling where AB decks are bad (win big but lose bigger) and CD decks are good (win small but lose smaller) and you end up doing better at CD decks but someone who can't process emotin can't learn this
During the iowa card task do people with or without damage to there OFC start having physiological symptoms..
people without damage start having physiological symptoms
If you have reactive aggression you most likely have an impaired ...?
if you have instrumental aggression you most likely have an impaired...?
What did Descartes Somatic Marker hypothesis state?
- rationality stems from our emotions
- our emotions stem from our bodily senses
- feeling reflects the state of the body and feeling is an indispensable ingredient of rational thought
- body=mind
Coke vs. Pepsi taste test showed that your actual preference correlated with what brain region activating? While your reported preference activated..?
What is affective forecasting?
Trouble predicting one’s own emotional state in the future
What is impact bias?
tendency for people to overestimate the length/intensity of the impact of future feeling states
Does asking people to think about their decision change the emotion?
Explain Higgins Promotion/Prevention and emotion
when you are in promotion focus you Focus on Aspirations, Advancement, Accomplishments
When in a Promotion focus, the fit is with Eager means
When in prevention focus is on responsibilities, safety, security, the fit is with Vigilance means
What is the Modal model? SAAR
it is emotion regulation which states: situation-- attention -- appraisal-- response.. the way we respond feeds to the situation and the cycle starts over
their are five ways to modify the modal model which are: SSACR
Situation Selection -- Situation Modification -- Attentional Deployment-- Cognitive Change--- Response Modulation
In Emotion Regulation what is situation selection?
Chose situations that elicit or do not elicit certain emotions.
Avoid threatening situations (phobia)
Seek stimulating situations (vacation)
In Emotion Regulation what is situation modification>
Change situations so that they are likely to elicit a particular emotion.
Study for exams to reduce anxiety.
Make a joke to release tension in a social situation.
In Emotion Regulation what it attention deployment
Attend to emotional or non-emotional aspects of the situation.
Think about something else in the dental chair.
In Emotion Regulation what is cognitive change?
Change the meaning of a stimulus.
Downplay importance after loss or rejection.
See the positive in a negative.
In Response focused emotion regulation what is suppression
Typically the suppression of the behavioral component of an emotion.
Inhibit crying.
Inhibit impulse to insult or hurt somebody.
Inhibit laughter.
According to Gross what is a more effective way of regulating emotions than suppression?
changing appraisals
When trying to control emotions what happens to physiological response?
it increased
Damage to what area of the brain leads to profone behavior without consideration of social or long-term consequences?
Emotion regulation is often seem as modulation of ___ by higher brain regions ___
lower brain regions (limbic System)....... PFC, Frontal lobes
Re-appraisal influces what two brain responses...
amygdala response and startle reflex (controlled by amygdala)