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In the movie Billy Madison, when Adam Sandler's character (27-year old "Billy Madison") yelled "I'm the smartest man alive!" after beating a 2nd grader in a spelling bee, he was probably feeling good about himself because he was engaging in...
downward social comparison
when you compare yourself to people who are "downer" than you. You do this to boost you up. YOu look at your skill as it is as good as someone else
Jane is a blue belt in Karate. She wants to be really good so she always compares herself to the black belts to motivate her to do better.
upward social comparison
when people compare themselves to people who do better.
Jake is an undergraduate student at a major university. He compares himself to other students, and not models in a magazine.
reference groups
The categories of people to which individuals see themselves as belonging and to which they habitually compare themselves.
Maya's friends in high school were all from middle class families, but now her roommate and many friends at the U of I are fomr upper class families. Although Maya has enough money to live in her own apartment and go out once in a while, she feels poor becasue her friends are all able to go clothes shopping every weekend and to fly to Cancun for spring break. In this example, Maya is most likely experiencing.....
relative deprivation
the belief that, in comparison to a reference group, one is getting less that is deserved.
Jackie says she is President of her Christian sorority, Elogeme.
social identity
A part of our self-concept, is our belief about the groups to which we belong. How others identify you.
" I am a hard worker," is an example of what idenity?
personal identity
How you identify yourself
Carrie failed to make the basketball team. Carrie thought that this meant that this meant that she was a failure in all aspects of life. Carrie probably has waht type of self schema?
unified self-schema
People think of themselves as having more or less the same characteristics or attributes in every situation (at home, at a party, and so on) and in every role (as a student, friend, or romantic partner). They would intrepret failure in one area as implying incompetence in all areas.
Leslie failed to make the vollyball team. She concluded that she was obviously a losy vollyball player, but this doesnt mean that she lacked skills and talens in other areas of her like. Leslie probably has what type of self-schema?
differentiated self-schema
They think of themselves as having different roles or situation. If they fail, they would think its not the end of the world that they are still good in other things.
John is terribly worried that his girlfriend, Care, is cheating on him. He repeatedly accuses her of planning to leave him and constantly spies on her. Eventually Care (who has been faithful up until this point) grows weary of John's behavior and she starts seeing someone. WHen John finds out, he tells his friends that he has been right about Care's cheating all along. THis scenario is an example of the
self-fulling prophecy
a process through which an initial impression of someone leads that person to behave in accordance with that impression.
Your classmate failed to bring you the notes on thursday and you think it was due to lack of consideration or laziness. WHich attribution is this?
internal attributions
An attrribute behavior in a particular situation to internal causes.
Grace has noticed that her roommate, Lori, is always polite and helpful. One night , however, Grace hears Lori yelling at someone over the telephone. Grace concludes that the person on the other end of the phone must have done something terrible. Grace has made an XXXXXXXXX attribution for Lori's yelling behavior based on high XXXXXXXXXXX.
external attribution; distinctiveness
external attribution- If you think a classmate's failure to bring your notes to class was that she had a familiy crisis or an umcoming exam. (something outside)
who proposed an influential theory of how people make attributions about the actions of other people.
Kelley's Attribution Theory
People (obeservers)
Other people (actors)
Your father ignores Ralph. Everyone ignores Ralph. Ralph must be ignoring.
consensus
HIGH consensus- would be that everyone thinks the same way about the person.
Low consensus- would be that only one or very little people think that way about a person so its probably not true what they say.
Does EVERYONE act this way in the SAME situation?
YOur father always invites Ralph to dinner on THursday but this Thursday he decided he did not want him there.
consistency
Low Consistency- suggest that your father's behavior is attributal to external causes, such as Ralph hasnt showered in weeks because he's doing a protest against drugs.
High consistency- Your father is always hostile towards Ralph
Does THIS PERSON always act this way in the SAME situation?
Your father is nasty to all your friends.
distinctiveness
low Distinctiveness- Your father is nasty to everyone so him being nasty to Ralph(your friend) is nothing new.
High distinctiveness-If your dad gets along with everyone except Ralph, your going to think of well whats wrong with Ralph then...he smells?
Has THIS PERSON acted DIFFERENTLY in similar situations?
WHile at Crobar Nightclub, Sadie asks an attractive man to dance. After he says "No," Sadie's friends tell her that the man is an insensitive jerk. However, her friends do not relaize that the man would not dance Sadie because he has a girlfriend, who was currently in the restroom. Sadie's friends are demonstrating the...
Fundamental attribution error
the tendency to attribute the behavior of others to internal factors.
Members of an outgroup receive little credit for their postive actions, and members of the in-group get little blame for their negative actions.
Ultimate Attribution error
both postive actions by members of an out-group (people we perceive as different) and negative actions by members of an in-group (people with whom we identify) are attributed to external situational factors rather than internal personal ones.
Jerry noticed that whenever his company wins a big account with a new client, each person claims responsibility for the success. However when a client decides to take its business elsewhere, everyone denies responsibility for the problems that precipitated the client's departure. People like to take credit for success but do not like to take the blame for failure.
Self-serving bias
the tendency to take credit for success but to blame external causes for failure.
WHen John failed to stop sign, he attributed his behavior to the sun in his eyes and poor placement of the sign. When someone else runs to a stop sign, however, John thinks they did so because of careleness or lack of attention.
actor- observer bias
the tendency to attribute one's own behavior to external factors, and others' behaviors to internal factors, especially when the behavior is inappropriate or involves failure.
Derk's friends tell him to put his name in the pot to win 100,000, but Derk refuses to because he thinks something that winning that amount of money will never happen to him
unrealistic optimism
ther tendency to believe that positive events are more likely to happen to others than to oneself.