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48 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
correlation coefficient

a measure of the nature and strength of the relationship between 2 variables


descriptive statistics

use mathematical procedures in an objective, uniform way to to describe different aspects of numerical data


frequency distribution

a summary of how frequently each of the various scores occurs


inferential statistics

use probability and theory to make sound decisions about which results might have occured simply through chance variation


mean

the statisic most often used to describe a set of data. the AVERAGE


measure of central tendancy

a representative score that can be used as an index of the most typical score obtained by a group of participants


measures of variability

statistics that describe the distribution of scores around some measure of central tendancy


median

the central score


mode

the score that occurs more often than any other


normal curve

a bell shaped, symmetrical curve


correlation coefficient

a measure of the nature and strength of the relationship between 2 variables


descriptive statistics

use mathematical procedures in an objective, uniform way to to describe different aspects of numerical data


frequency distribution

a summary of how frequently each of the various scores occurs


inferential statistics

use probability and theory to make sound decisions about which results might have occured simply through chance variation


mean

the statisic most often used to describe a set of data. the AVERAGE


range

the difference between the highest and lowest values in a frequency distribution


significant difference

probability that the difference might be due to chance is less than 5 in 100


standard deviation

a measure of variability that indicates the average difference between the scores and their mean


behavioral measures

ways to study overt actions and observable and recordable reactions


betweensubject designs

randomly assigned groups to either experimental or control conditions


case study

study of one individual or a small group


confounding variable

something which is not purposely introduced into an experiment, and changes a participants behavior and adds confusion to interpretation of the data


control procedures

methods that attempt to hold constant all variables and conditions other than those related to the hypothesis being tested


correlational methods

used to determine to what extent 2 variables , traits, or attributes are related.


positive correlation

+1 : as one set of scores increases, so does the other


negative correlation

1 :if one set of scores increases, the other decreases


no correlation

0.0 : scores closer to zero mean there is weak or no realtionship between the scores


debriefing

the researcher provides as much information about the study as possible, and makes sure that no one leave feeling upset, confused, or embarrassed


dependant variable

what the experimentor measures


determinism

all events physical, mental, and behavioral, are the result of, or determined by, specific casual factors


doubleblind control

both experimentors and subjects are unaware of which participants get which treatment


expectancy effects

whena researcher subtly communicated to the subjects the behaviors they expect to find, producing their dsired reaction


experimental methods

maipulating an independant variable to look for an effect on a dependant variable


independant variable

the factor that the researcher manipulates


observer bias

an error due to the personal motives and expectations of the veiwer


operational definition

standardizes meaning within an experiment , by defining a concept in terms of certain procedures used to measure it or define its prescence


placebo control

administering placebos


placebo effect

occurs when experimental participants change their behavior in the abscence of any experimental manipulation


reliability

the consistency or dependability of behavioral data resulting from psycological testing


representative sample

a representative sample of a population if it matches the overall characteristics of that population


sample

small sample of population


scientific method

a general set of procedures for gathering and interpreting evidence in ways that limit errors and provide dependable conclusions


selfreport measures

verbal answers, either written or spoken, to questions the researcher poses


standarization

using unifrom, consistent procedures in all phases of data collection


theory

an organized set of concepts that explain a phenomenon


validity

the info. produced by research accurately measures the psychological quaility it's intended to


variable

any factor that varies in amount or kind


withinsubjects design

uses each participant as his or her own control
ex: infant changing emotion based on facial expression 