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### 49 Cards in this Set

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 Concept -mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people Prototype 2 -mental image or best example of a category -matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin) Algorithm 2  methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem  contrasts with the usually speedier–but also more error-prone--use of heuristics Heuristic 3  simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently  usually speedier than algorithms  more error-prone than algorithms Insight 2  sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem  contrasts with strategy-based solutions Confirmation Bias  tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions Fixation 2  inability to see a problem from a new perspective  impediment to problem solving Representativeness Heuristic 2  judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes  may lead one to ignore other relevant information Availability Heuristic 3  estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory  if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common  Example: airplane crash Overconfidence 2  tendency to be more confident than correct  tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs and judgments Framing 2  the way an issue is posed  how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments Belief Perseverance  clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited Origins of Intelligence Testing 3  Mental Age  Stanford-Binet  Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Intelligence Quotient (IQ) 2  defined originally the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100  on contemporary tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100 Stanford-Binet  the widely used American revision of Binet’s original intelligence test Mental Age 2  a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet  chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance General Intelligence (g) 2  factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities  measured by every task on an intelligence test Multiple Intelligences 3  Savant Syndrome  Social Intelligence  Emotional Intelligence Savant Syndrome  condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill Social Intelligence  the know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully Emotional Intelligence  ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions Intelligence & Creativity  the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) 2 and 2  most widely used intelligence test  subtests **verbal **performance (nonverbal) Aptitude Test 2  a test designed to predict a person’s future performance  aptitude is the capacity to learn Achievement Test  a test designed to assess what a person has learned Genetic Influences 2 and 2  The most genetically similar people have the most similar scores  Heritability **the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes **variability depends on range of populations and environments studied Environmental Influences 2 and 1  The Schooling Effect Group Differences  Stereotype Threat **A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype Motivation 3 -the study of "whys" of behavior--- -The factors that direct and energize behavior of humans and other organisms -a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior Instinct theories -there is some inborn, genetic component to motivation Drive-Reduction Theory -the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state that motivates an organism to satisfy the need drive -A motivational tension, or arousal, that energizes behavior in order to fulfill a need motives -The desired goals that underlie behavior homeostasis -body’s tendency to maintain a steady balanced or constant internal state Define incentive, and the Incentive theory -motivation results from the "pull" of external environmental stimuli. -a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior Maslow’s Hierarchy: Ordering Motivational Needs 3 -begins at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied then higher-level -safety needs become active -then psychological needs become active The 5 needs in order by Maslow: -Physiological (hunger & thirst) -Safety -Belongingness & love -Esteem -Self actualization (live up to one's fullest potential) Anorexia Nervosa symptoms -when a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly (>15%) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve Bulimia Nervosa symptoms -disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise Achievement Motivation -Achievement involves the need for success, for doing better than others, and for mastering challenging tasks. -Research with intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation shows that extrinsic rewards can lower interest and achievement motivation. intrinsic motivation -Motivation by which people participate in an activity for their own enjoyment, not for the reward it will get them extrinsic motivation -Motivation by which people participate in an activity for a tangible reward 3 components of Emotion -physiological arousal -expressive behaviors -conscious experience Schachter’s Two-Factor Theory of Emotion -To experience emotion one must: be physically aroused; cognitively label the arousal Catharsis hypothesis -“releasing” aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges General Adaptation Syndrome -Selye’s concept of the body’s adaptive response to stress in three stages Health consequences of Catasrophes, Significant Life changes, and Daily hassles 2 -especially stressful when appraised as negative and uncontrollable -Heart disease Type A personality -Friedman and Rosenman’s term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people Type B personality -Friedman and Rosenman’s term for easygoing, relaxed people Coping with stress 3 -Aerobic Exercise -Biofeedback -Spirituality