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160 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Overt behavior would include...

A. basket weaving
B. thinking
Basket weaving
Covert behavior would include...

A. gambling
B. remembering
remembering
The study of interpersonal attraction would be undertaken by...

A. gender psychologists
B. social psychologists
social psychologists
Altering conditions that affect behavior may be described as psychology's goal of...

A. control
B. understanding
control
Looking inward to probe personal reactions to various stimuli is called...

A. introspection
B. single blind experiment
introspection
Among the ways psychologists view behavior, the view that behavior is directed by hidden or unconscious processes i known as the...

A. humanistic view
B. psychodynamic view
pyschodynamic view
Among the ways psychologists view behavior, the view that behavior is shaped and controlled by one's environment is known as...

A. biopsychological view
B. behavioristic view
behaviorists view
Among the ways psychologists view behavior, the view that behavior is guided by one's self-image and by the need for personal growth is known as...

A. humanistic view
B. behaviorist view
humanistic view
Among the ways psychologists view behavior, the view that behavior is the result of chemical and biological processes is known as...

A. biopsychological view
B. psychodynamic view
biopsychological view
Among the ways psychologists view behavior, the view that behavior can be understood in terms of mental processing of information is known as...

A. humanistic view
B. cognitive view
cognitive view
A child facing poor adjustment at school would most likely be referred to a...

A. counseling psychologist
B. clinical psychologist
counseling psychologist
A friend suffering from serious mental illness who returns from an office visit with a prescription for an antidepressant has probably seen a...

A. clinical psychologist
B. psychiatrist
psychiatrist
Observing behavior in a busy playground would be a type of...

A. naturalistic observation
B. case study
naturalistic observation
Gathering information by a questionnaire of a large group would be a type of...

A. survey method
B. random selection
survey method
Happy children engage in a noisey pillow fight. They hear parents coming down the hall. All suddenly quiet and peaceful. This illustrates...

A. observer bias
B. observer effect
observer effect
A new bAby arrives. The family pet is now described as moody and jealous. This illustrates...

A. anthropmorphic error
B. observer bias
anthropmorphic error
You volunteer for a classroom experiment but nothing happens to you. You are most likely a member of...

A. control group 1
B. experimental group 1
control group 1
You volunteer for a classroom experiment and you are given an unusual wristband to wear while others are given nothing. You are most likely a member of...

A. experimental group 2
B. experimental group 1
experimental group 1
The placebo effect has been shown to affect...

A. depression
B. pain
pain
The influence of an experimenter alters behavior in such a way that a hypothesis is apparently validated. This illustrates...

A. experimenter effect
B. observer effect
experimenter effect
The current state of physical, emotional, and intellectual development refers to...

A. developmental level
B. reciprocal influence
developmental level
The overall pattern of human physical development is known as...

A. polygentic traits
B. human growth sequence
human growth sequence
Genetic disorders do not include...

A. HIV
B. albinism
HIV
That a genetic feature appears everytime the gene is present describes the gene as...

A. dominant
B. recessive
dominant
Management techniques as a discipline style would include...

A. praise, recognition and approval

B. rejection of the child
praise, recognition, and approval
Authoritarian parents expect...

A. firm, consistent guidance
B. rigid rules and strict obedience
rigid rules and strict obedience
Authoritative parents provide...

A. firm, consistent guidance
B. rigid rules and strict obedience
firm, consistent guidance
The study of progressive changes in behavior and abilities is known as...

A. developmental psychology
B. cultural psychology
developmental psychology
Devolpmental milestons are governed by...

A. environment
B. readiness
readiness
Times when children are susceptible to specific environmental influences are known as...

A. growth spurts
B. sensitive periods
sensitive periods
The newborn temperament of a slow-to-warm up child who is restrained and shy is shared by about ___ percent of all children

A. 15%
B. 40%
15%
The exaggerated pattern of speaking called parentese...

a. helps children learn language
b. adjusts to a child's language ability
c. all of the other answers
d. is similar in all nations
C. all of the other answers
The adaptive reflexes of a neonate include.

A. all of the other answers
B. rooting
C. sucking
D. grasping
A. all of the other answers
The newborn temperatment of an easy child who is relaxed and agreeable is shared by about ___ percent of all children.

A. 15%
B. 40%
40%
Power assertion as a discipline style would include...

A. physical punishment
B. rejection of child
physical punishment
The newborn temperatment of a difficult child who is moody and easily angered is shared by about ___ percent of all children.

A. 40%
B. 10%
10%
Congenital disorders do not include...

A. hemophilia
B. HIV
HIV
Jean Piaget described children's cognitive development as...

A. variable series of stages
B. fixed series of stages
a fixed series of stages
That a genetic feature appears only when linked with a second identical gene describes the gene as...

A. dominant
B. recessive
recessive
Withdrawal of love as a discipline style would include...

A. rejection of the child
B. physical punishment
rejection of the child
Developmental milestones include...

A. high school graduation
B. marriage
C. death of a parent
D. all other answers
D. all other answers
Adequate warmth, touching, love and physical care are important for...

A. stage 1, trust vs. mistrust
B. stage 3, initiative vs. guilt
Stage 1, trust vs. mistrust
Praise for productive activity is important during...

A. stage 2, autonomy vs. shame and doubt

B. stage 4, industry vs. inferiority
Stage 4, industry vs. inferiority
Finding an answer to "Who am I?" is the primary task of...

A. adolescence
B. young adulthood
adolescence
A person who feels like a failure and realizes it is too late to reverse that feeling would probably be...

A. a young adult who failed an entrance exam

B. a senior citizen at retirement
a senior citizen at retirement
Erikson's stages of psychosocial development are...

A. major events in the lives of many people

B. exact maps of the future
major events in the lives of many people
Normal childhood problems include...

A. specific fears
B. clinging
C. reversals or regressions
D. all other answers
D. all other answers
Serious cases of undereating or self-starvation are called...

A. bulimia
B. anorexia nervose
anorexia nervosa
The two words "me go", when used by a young child, illustrates...

A. telegraph speech
B. delayed speech
telegraph speech
ADHD is not caused by...

A. chemical imbalance of brain
B. sugary diets
sugary diets
Abusive mothers tend to believe their children annoy them...

A. automatically
B. intentionally
intentionally
One third of all parents who were abused as children...

A. mistreat their own
B. become permissive parents
mistreat their own
Moving from adolescence to adult status in North America is marked by...

A. marriage
B. financial independence
financial independence
Puberty is marked by...

A. rapid physical growth
B. sexual maturity
C. peak growth spurt
D. all other answers
D. all other answers
A teenager believes everyone stares at a facial blemish. This illustrates...

A. an imaginary audience
B. a potential audience
an imaginary audience
Middle-aged people may add an average of 7.5 years to their lives by...

A. exercising regularly
B. taking a positive outlook
taking a positive outlook
People who become experts in various fields often reach their peaks between the ages of...

A. 30-50
B. 30-40
30-50
When first confronted by news of impending death, terminal patients often react with...

A. denial
B. anger
denial
If time permits, terminal patients often react with...

A. depression
B. acceptance
acceptance
Grief tends to follow a predictable pattern and usually begins with...

A. denial
B. numbness
numbness
Our sensory systems act as a data reduction systems. This means that they...

A. keep us from being overwhelmed with information

B. make us more aware of some sensations than others
keep us from being overwhelmed with information
Vision...

A. allows us to see the world
B. narrows what we actually observe
C. selects, analyzes, and filters information down to the most important data.
D. all of these
D. all of these
Sensory receptors are biological transducers, which means that they...

A. convert one form of energy to another

B. analyze the environment into important features
convert one form of energy to another
Film is to camera as ______ is to eye...

A. retina
B. iris
retina
Black and white film is to color film as _______ is/are to ______.

A. cones;rods
B. rods;cones
rods;cones
People who are color-blind...

A. see only shades of black and white

B. cannot distinguish shades of red and green
see only shades of black and white.
Sound waves...

A. cannot travel in solid objects

B. are produced by vibrating objects
are produced by vibrating objects
Which of the following is NOT a type of deafness...

A. nerve deafness
B. threshold recovery deafness
C. stimulation deafness
D. conduction deafness
B. threshold recovery deafness
Olfaction and gustation are considered...

A. chemical senses
B. vestibular senses
chemical senses
Skin senses, kinesthetic senses, and vestibular senses comprise which sense system...

A. somesthetic sense system
B. perceptual feedback system
somesthetic sense system
Skin sensations include...

A. light touch, pressure, wetness, cold and warmth

B. light touch, pressure, cold, and warmth
light touch, pressure, cold, and warmth
Factors that can be used to reduce pain...

A. anxiety
B. control
C. attention
D. all of these
D. all of these
Which of the following is NOT a reason that many sensory events never reach awareness...

A. subliminal stimulation
B. sensory gating
subliminal stimulation
The most basic perceptual organization is...

A. depth perception
B. figure-ground
figure-ground
Psychologists believe that depth perception is...

A. learned
B. partly learned and partly innate
partly learned and partly innate
The pictorial depth cue regarding objects placed higher (closer to the horizon line) that are then perceived as more distant is referred to as...

A. height in the picture plane
B. linear perspective
height in the picture plane
In perception, past experience, motives, context, or suggestion may create a _______ that sets the person to perceive in a certain way.

A. perceptual expectancy
B. perceptual orientation
perceptual expectancy
Pain that quickly disappears is known as...

A. warning pain
B. sensory attention
warning pain
Exposure to a constant stimulus may result in...

A. sensory adaptation
B. sensory gating
sensory adaptation
Depth cues that work with one eye are known as...

A. binocular cues
B. monocular cues
monocular cues
Night terrors occur during...

A. NREM sleep
B. REM sleep
NREM sleep
The most heavily abused drug in common use today is...

A. caffeine
B. alcohol
alcohol
A drug that lowers anxiety and reduces tension is called a...

A. depressant
B. tranquilizer
tranquilizer
NREM sleep may be increased by...

A. daytime stress
B. physical exertion
physical exertion
Studies have linked chronic marijuana use with...

A. lung cancer
B. increased IQ
lung cancer
Psychoactive drugs influence...

A. brain cell activity
B. peripheral nervous system
brain cell activity
The psychoactive drug, caffeine, does not cause..

A. hand tremors
B. fatigue
fatigue
Sleep spindles mark the boundary of...

A. Stage 2 sleep
B. Stage 1 sleep
Stage 2 sleep
The internal biological clock that regulates sleep and waking is known as...

A. circadian rhythm
B. REM paralysis
circadian rhythm
Nicotine is a natural...

A. depressant
B. stimulant
stimulant
Normal dreaming is associated with...

A. NREM sleep
B. REM sleep
REM sleep
Hypnosis can be helpful to...

A. relieve pain
B. produce superhuman strength
relieve pain
A brief shift in brain activity to the pattern normally recorded during sleep describes...

A. Stage 1 sleep
B. microsleep
microsleep
A failure of normal muscle paralysis leading to violent actions during sleep is known as...

A. REM behavior disorder
B. sleep terror disorder
REM behavior disorder
Severe sleep loss that produces hallucinations and delusions is known as...

A. sleep deprivation psychosis
B. sleep disorders
sleep deprivation psychosis
Nightmares occur during...

A. REM sleep
B. NREM sleep
REM sleep
Attention to a single focal point is an important element in...

A. receptive meditation
B. concentrative meditation
concentrative meditation
Alcohol abuse that causes victims to drink compulsively and continuously occurs at the...

A. crucial phase
B. chronic phase
chronic phase
The reflex muscle twitch called a hypnic jerk signals the entry into

A. stage 2 sleep
B. stage 1 sleep
Stage 1 sleep
The repeated occurrence of night terrors that significantly disturb sleep is called...

A. sleep terror disorder
B. nightmare disorder
sleep terror disorder
Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior due to..

A. maturity
B. experience
experience
Classical conditioning deals with..

A. antecedents
B. responses
antecedents
Operant conditioning deals with..

A. consequences
B. antecedents
consequences
When a child is scratched by a cat and then shows fear of a pet rabbit, the process is one of...

A. stimulus generalization
B. stimulus discrimination
stimulus generalization
A child scratched by a white cat who then shows no fear of a gray cat illustrates...

A. stimulus discrimination
B. stimulus generalization
stimulus discrimination
Operant learning is based on the law of...

A. cause and effect
B. effect
effect
An operant response reappears after previously being extinguished in...

A. spontaneous recovery
B. extinction reversal
spontaneous recovery
The likelihood that a response will be repeated is decreased by...

A. negative reinforcement
B. punishment
punishment
Learning and performance almost always improve from...

A. knowledge of results
B. positive reinforcement
knowledge of results
Computer-assisted instruction aids learning by immediate...

A. positive reinforcement
B. knowledge of results
knowledge of results
When a rat presses a lever and receives a small pellet of food with each press, the type of reinforcement is...

A. continuous reinforcement
B. variable-ration reinforcement
continuous reinforcement
The likelihood of aggression is _________ by watching televised violence.

A. decreased
B. increased
increased
When a rat presses a lever and receives a pellet of food with every fourth press, the type of reinforcement is...

A. fixed-ration reinforcement
B. fixed-interval reinforcement
fixed-ratio reinforcement
Television characters can act as powerful models for...

A. observation learning
B. discovery learning
observational learning
When a rat presses a lever and receives a pellet of food 30 seconds after the lever is depressed, the type of reinforcement is...

A. fixed ratio
B. fixed interval
fixed interval
Discovery learning emphasizes...

A. insight
B. models
insight
A rat presses a lever and receives a pellet of food an average of 10 seconds after the lever is pressed. This represents...

A. variable interval
B. variable ratio
variable interval
Cognitive learning involves higher mental processes such as...

A. altered states of consciousness

B. problem solving
problem solving
The effectiveness of punishers does NOT depend on...

A. legality
B. consistency
legality
"Do as I do" is an example of...

A. observational learning
B. discovery learning
observational learning
The process that controls what information moves on to short-term memory is called...

A. selective attention
B. sensory memory
selective attention
Introduced to a new friend named Tim, you mistakenly remembered him as Jim. This illustrates that short-term memory...

A. is often stored phonetically

B. doesn't work well with names
is often stored phonetically
Short-term memory, when combined with other mental processes, create...

A. working memory
B. long-term memory
working memory
Information that is important is transferred to long-term memory, which acts as...

A. temporary storehouse for knowledge

B. a lasting storehouse for knowledge
a lasting storehouse for knowledge
Basic conditional repsonses and learned actions are known as...

A. declarative memory
B. procedural memory
procedural memory
Short-term memory generally contains up to __ information bits...

A. 7
B. 3
7
To expand the capacity of short-term memory, information is often gathered...

A. and recoded into information chunks

B. and rehearsed indefinitely
and recoded into information chunks
Gaps in memory may be filled by logic, guessing, or new information through the use of...

A. constructive processing
B. procedural memory
constructive processing
Tip-of-the-tongue state demonstrates...

A. poor encoding of information

B. that memory can be partial
that memory can be partial
Previously learned material is correctly identified through...

A. recognition memory
B. serial position effect
recognition memory
Material that seems to be forgotten is learned again through the process of...

A. recognition memory
B. relearning
relearning
The technique of priming is often necessary to reveal...

A. implicit memory
B. explicit memory
implicit memory
In the first part of Ebbinghaus' curve of forgetting, the rate of forgetting is...

A. slow
B. rapid
rapid
The most obvious reason for forgetting is...

A. encoding failure
B. interference or interruption
encoding failure
When a bodily state exists during learning and serves as a cue for later memory, the effect is known as...

A. serial position effect
B. state-dependent learning
state-dependent learning
When new learning impairs retrieval of old learning, the interference is known as...

A. retroactive interference
B. simultaneous interference
retroactive interference
Summarizing aloud while you are learning refers to the memory strategy of...

A. recitation
B. rehearsal
recitation
Mentally reviewing information as you read refers to the memory strategy of...

A. recitation
B. rehearsal
rehearsal
When a good memory functions like a fish net by keeping the big fish and letting the little ones escape, the memory strategy is one of...

A. selection
B. organization
selection
When short study sessions are alternated with brief rest periods, the memory strategy is one of...

A. partial learning
B. spaced practice
spaced practice
Inhibition and fear of making a fool of oneself produces the barrier to problem solving known as...

A. an emotional barrier
B. a perceptual barrier
an emotional barrier
In routine problem solving or thinking, there is one correct answer, and the problem is to find it. This leads to...

A. convergent thinking
B. divergent thinking
convergent thinking
The creative thinking stage in which the thinker saturates himself with as much information as possible is known as..

A. illumination
B. preparation
preparation
A thinker who suddenly solves a problem experiences...

A. solution by understanding
B. insight
insight
Quick impulsive thought is known as...

A. insight
B. intuition
intuition
The terms mentally retarded and developmentally disabled are applied to those whose IQ scores fall in the range of...

A. below 70
B. 70-90
below 70
Adult IQ scores show the average category of 90-109 includes about ___ percent.

A. 25.8%
B. 50.5%
50.5%
When a concept is defined by having one feature or another, the concept is described as...

A. conjunctive
B. disjunctive
disjunctive
When an image is assembled or invented rather than remembered, it is known as...

A. created image
B. stored image
created image
The creative thinking stage in which the thinker finds all attempted solutions to be futile is known as...

A. orientation
B. incubation
incubation
Solutions by trial and error or by rote are known as...

A. mechanical solutions
B. functional solutions
mechanical solutions
The distribution of IQ scores shows...

A. normal curve
B. equal distribution in all categories
a normal curve
The study of human thinking and information procession is known as...

A. social psychology
B. cognitive psychology
cognitive psychology
The general capacity to act purposefully and to deal effectively with the environment describes...

A. IQ
B. intelligence
intelligence
Basic units of thought include images, concepts and...

A. memory
B. language
language
The inability to see new uses for familiar objects is known as...

A. solution by understanding
B. functional fixedness
functional fixedness
As a group, differences in overall IQ scores between males and females shows...

A. no difference
B. females scoring higher
no difference
In routine problem solving or thinking, many possibilities are developed from one starting point. This leads to...

A. divergent thinking
B. convergent thinking
divergent thinking
When a concept is defined by the presence of two or more features, the concept is described as...

A. disjunctive
B. conjunctive
conjunctive
Habits that lead toa failure to identify important elements of a problem lead to a barrier to problem solving known as...

A. perceptual barrier
B. cultural barrier
perceptual barrier