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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
memory
The process by which information is retained for later use
information-processing model
A model of memory in which information must pass through discrete stages via the processes of attention, encoding, storage, and retrival.
Sensory Memory
A memory storage system that recoreds information from the senses for up to three seconds.
Short-term memory
A memory storage system that records information from the senses for up to three seconds
Long-term memory (LTM)
A relatively permanent memory storage system that can hold vast amounts of information for many years
Iconic memory
A fleeting sensory memory for visual images that lasts only a fraction of a second
echoic memory
A brief sensory memory for auditory input that lasts only two to three seconds
chunking
The process of grouping distinct bits of information into larger wholes or chunks to increase short-term memory capacity
maintenance rehearsal
The use of sheer repetition to keep information in short-term memory
Working memory
Term used to described short-term memory as an active workspace where information is accessible for current use
serial-position curve
A U-shape pattern indicating the tendency to recall more items from the beginning and end of a list than from the middle
Elaborative rehearsal
A technique for transferring information into long-term memory by thinking about it in a deeper way
Procedural memory
Stored long-term knowledge of learned habits and skills
Declaritive memory
Stored long-term knowledge of facts about ourselves and the world
Semantic network
A complex web of semantic associations that link items in memory such that retrieving one item triggers the retrieval of others as well
Lexical decision making
An experimental task that requires subjects to decide as quickly as possible whether a string of letters briefly presented is a word or nonword.
hippocampus
A portion of the barin in the limbic system tha plays a key role in enconding and transferring new information into long-term memory
Anteriograde Amnesia
A memory disorder characterized by an inablity to store new information in long-term memory
Retrograde amnesia
A memory disorder characterized by an inability to retrieve long-term memories from the past
Explicit memory
the types of memory elicited trhough the conscious retrival of recollections in response to direct questions
Implicit Memory
A nonconscious recollection of a prior experience that is revealed indirectly, by its effects on performance
Free Recall
A type of explicit-memory task in which a person must reproduce information with out the benefit of external cues. (eg, and essay exam)
Recognition
A form of explicit-memory retrieval in which items are represented to a person who must determine if they were previously encountered.
Encoding specificity
The principle that any stimulus encoded along with an experience can later jog one's memory of that experience.
Forgetting curve
A consistent pattern in which the rate of memory loss for input is steepest right after input is received and levels off after time
proactive interference
The tendency for previously learned material to disrupt the recall of new information
Retroactive interference
The tendency for new information to disrupt the memory of previously learned material
mnemonics
Memory aids designed to facilitate the recall of new information
schemas
Preconceptions about persons, objects, or events that bias the way new information is interpreted and recalled.
Autobiographical memory
The recollections people have of their own personal experiences and observations
flashbulb memories
Highly vivid and enduring memories, typically for events that are dramatic and emotional
Childhood amnesia
The inability of most people to recall events from before the age of three or four.
Hindsight Bias
The tendency to think after an event that we knew in advance what was going to happen.