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66 Cards in this Set

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Any system- human, animal, or machine- that encodes, stores and retrieves information
Memory
Human memory is an _____ processing system that works constructively to _______, ______, and _______ information
info. encode. store. retrieve.
when remembering, you retrieve ________ of the memory. Then, using ______ you reconstruct the memory by filling in the blanks with how you ______ the incident instead of how it really was.
fragment(x2) think
Two types of info that we build the most complete memories for.
Rehearsed, Emotionally arousing, info we've payed attn to, something that connects us to a previous exp., interesting
Encoding, Storing, Retrieving
Memories three basic tasks
Elaboration
connecting new info with existing info
Essentially same theory as Piaget's assimilation
ELABORATION
When your mind is selecting info
encoding
Retention of encoded material over time
storing
T/F retrieval always works
FALSE
Better known as Photographic Memory
EIDETIC MEMORY
How many sequential stages does Permanent Memory have?
3
Memory that holds sights, sounds, smells, textures
SENSORY
Takes info selectively from sensory registers and connects it with items already in long term storage
WORKING MEMORY
Everything entering consciousness passes thru what memory?
WORKING
the location and recovery of info from memory
retrieval
Holds barrage of incoming sensation about 1/4 second for brain to scan it and decide which stream of info needs attn
sensory memory
Who studied capacity and duration of sensory memory?
Sperling
Ionic Memory
Vision
Echoic Memory
Hearing
Example of what kind of mem: remembering words from beginning of sentence to understand end of sentence
working
working memory is the mechanism that selects info from the _______ mem
sensory
which memory has smallest holding capacity of the three memory stages
working
what temp stores sounds
phonological loop
what is used to store and manipulate visual images
sketchpad
any pattern or meaningful unit of info
chunk
you can get more material into the seven slots of working memory by using what study idea?
chunking
Phone company's reason behind hyphens in #'s:
412-533-3321
CHUNKING
Matinance rehearsal- does well maintaining info _______ in ______ memory
temporarily working
Elaborative Rehearsal... info is _______ repeated and related to _____ _____ info in long term memory.
actively. already existing
conversion of info into sound patterns in working memory
acoustic encoding
levels of processing in working memory was proposed by
craik and lockhart
Picture longterm memory as a huge web of ____________ associations
interconnected
longterm memory is capable of holding memory for how long?
lifetime
the more ________ you make, the more info you can hold
associations
2 main parts of longterm memory
proceduarl, declarative
Division of Longterm memory that stores memories for HOW things are done
PROCEDURAL
Division of Longterm memory that stores memories for explicit INFO
Declarative
SUBdivision of declarative memory that stores memory for personal events or episodes
EPISODIC MEMORY
Acts as an internal diary
Subdivision of delcarative memory that stores general knowledge including meanings of words and concepts
SEMANTIC MEMORY
Physical changes in brain associated w memory also known as memory trace
ENGRAM
Ingram
Inability to form memories for new info
ANTEROgrade AMNESIA
anterograde or retrograde
Inability to remember info previously stored in memory
RETROgrade Amnesia
anterograde or retrograde
What causes Alzheimer's disease?
deteriaration of hippocampus
hippo
process by which short term memories are changed to long term memories over period of time
consolidation
what strengthens memories that have large emotional associations?
Amygdala
Clear and vivid long term memory of an esspecially meaningful and emotional event
flashbulb memory
memory you did not know that you know
implicit
memory that has been processed with atn and conciously recalled
explicit
procedural memories are often _______
implicit
A memory is ______ if it can affect behavior or mental processes without becoming fully conscious
implicit
something used to bring a memory to consciousness or into behavior
retrieval cues
Technique for cuing implicit memories by providing cues that bring memory without awareness
PRIMING
prime rib
remembering gist of idea instead of actual words
retrieving explicit memories
retrieval method in which one must reproduce previously presented info.
recall
TYPE OF RETRIEVAL METHOD: police ask eyewitness to remember robber
recognition
memory process that selectively retrieves memories that match one's mood
mood-congruent memory
congruent
"tip of tongue"
TOT phenomenon
napoleon dynamite
Fading memories cause forgetting
transcience
it's a science
Who molded the seven sins of memory
Schacter
shack
Misplacing car keys
absent mindedness
occurs when info hasencountered interference
blocking
cause of forgetting by which previously stored info prevents learning and remembering new info
proactive interference
cause of forgetting by which newly learned info prevents retrieval of previously stored material
retroactive interference
memories in wrong context
misattribution
process of momory distortion as result of deliberate or inadvertent suggestions
suggestibility