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21 Cards in this Set

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Learning
the adaptive process through which experience modifies pre-existing behavior and understanding. builds motor and language skills.
3 main questions on learning
1) which events and relationships so people learn about? 2) What circumstances determine whether and how people learn? and 3)Is learning a slow process requiring lots of practice, or does it involve sudden flashes of insight?
Novel Stimuli
stimuli we have not experienced before
Habituation
the process of adapting to stimuli that do not change. example of nonassociative learning
Dishabituation
reappearance of your original response when the stimulus changes- loud clock in room stops ticking and you notice because envionment has changed
Sensitization
showing an exaggerated reponses to unexpected, potentially threatening sights or sounds (Blair witch project)example of nonassociative learning
nonassociative learning
this kind of learning results from the impact of one particular stimulus it does not occur because a person or animal learned to associate one stimulus with another
reflex
automatic response to a stimulus
neutral stimulus
is a stimulus that initially does not trigger the reflex being studied, although it may cause other responses. (a sound is heard by the dog its ears perk up and he turns around but does not salivate)
Classical conditioning
A procedure in which a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with a stimulus that elicits a reflex or other respose until the neutral stimulus alone comes to elicit a similar response. (Palvos dog exoperiment)
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
A stimulus that elicits a respose without conditioning (meat powder in Palvos experiment)
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
The automatic or unlearned reation to a stimulus
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
The originally neutral stimulus that, through pairing with the unconditioned stimulus, comes to elicit a conditioned response.
Conditioned Response (CR)
The response that the conditioned stimulus elicits
Extinction
the gradual dissapearance of a conditioned response when a conditioned stimulus no longer predicts the appearance of an unconditioned stimulus.
reflex
automatic response to a stimulus
reconditioning
the quick relearning of a condictioned response following extinction
spontaneous recovery
the reappearane of the conditioned response after extinction and without further pairings of the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli.
stimulus generalization
a phenomenon in which a conditioned response is elicited by stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus (someone bit by a big brown dog is too be more scared of a big brown dog in the future than a different kind of dog)
stimulus discrimination
a process through which individuals learn to differentiate among similar stimuli and respnd appropriately to each one. (balances stimulus generalization)
backward conditioning
the conditioned stimulus follows the unconditioned stiumulus. this makes a conditioned response develop slowly, if at all.